Friday, December 27, 2019
According to Irving Fisher, the real rate of interest is the most important price in the economy. This is because real rate of interest provides the worth of consumption at present in terms of consumption in the future. Fisher was pretty much interested in measuring inflation and hence was a leading supporter of inflation-indexed bonds. For measuring the inflation, he had created an inflation index and carefully published its value (Geanakoplos, 2005). For understanding the assumptions of Fisher Theory or the later arguments towards the position of inflation expectation, three behavioral patterns will have to be used: complete illusion, adaptive lag, and rational expectations. These patterns show consistency with the deviation of the market and real interests during the changes of the price level. They will reflect the various ways of adjustment that they make to bring the deviation that should occur. A complete understanding of these patterns will lead to the support of the hypothe sis that there is a positive link between the rate of interest and nominal interest rate (University of Detroit Mercy, 2006). This behavior pattern is reflected during the periods of price stability which people were habituated during 1952-1964.We will write a custom essay sample on Analysis of The Fisher Theory or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now During the period, the entrepreneurs used to enjoy no profit at all. The people were susceptible towards inflation effect. As inflation started during the 60s, the people showed little concern. According to their mindset, the observation in the market was real for them. With the first oil shock in 1973, they began to feel the pressure of decreasing income as real rates decreased (Thaler, 1997). With the lag in 1973, people began to adjust their expectations and began to approach the inflation premiums in the form of higher rate of interest. They were approaching to compensate for the loss that they have incurred due to capital investment. It should be noted here that in the behavioral pat behavioral plate illusion, all the adjustments were done by the real interest rates.
Thursday, December 19, 2019
In the universe there s a galaxy, and in this galaxy there s the solar system, and in this solar system there is a planet earth, and in this planet earth lives 7 billion people. We are all the same but divided by key things; oceans and mountains, culture and society, but most important religions and beliefs. Out of the hundreds of practices and beliefs that make part of planet earth one of the most interesting form of religious practice is Buddhism. Buddhism is the practice of finding peace within ones self by developing inner peace, wisdom and kindness. This practice dates back 2,500 years, and the founder is known as Buddha Shakyamuni. He was born a royal prince in a town called Lumbini; originally part of northern India but now makes part of Nepal. When Buddha was 29 years old, he retired form his royal life and left to the woods to fallow the spiritual life of meditation. He found a new way of life without materialistic needs by finding inner enlightenment. Buddha teaches how to get liberation from suffering form oneself, and how to attain enlightenment for the sake of others; his main goal was to give people permanent liberation form suffering by helping them find lasting peace or nirvana. The Buddhist culture believes that all of our problems are caused by a confused and negative state of mind, but all good fortune and happiness comes form a positive state of mind. Buddhism is meant to teach the human mind how to overcome negative minds like ignorance, anger, andShow MoreRelatedBuddhism And Its Impact On Society1982 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesBuddhism was founded in India by Buddha Shakyamuni thousands of years ago. He based centered his religion on peace and loving kindness. He established positive and negative states of mind. He created paths to find happiness and everlasting peace. There are many different form of expressing Buddhism that have evolved over the years, all of which originated from the teachings of Buddha. Buddhism practices positive thinking , emphasizes meditation, lays the path to find happiness, and does not believeRead MoreBuddhism in Ancient Korea: The Impact1586 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageschanges in development in many cultures for many centuries. As religions grow within a society, inventions and social communication changes but these religions can take over the political power holding the society. The main religions introduced during KoreaÃ¢â¬â¢s past are Shamanism, Daoism, and Confucianism, and Buddhism. Buddhism is the religion that changed the society of Korea the most in the ancient times. As Buddhism spread in Korea, great inventions were made, the power hold of Korea started leaningRead MoreBuddhism And Its Impact On The World And The People Around It910 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswill be a large impact on the world and the people around it. Polytheistic religions, at least in my opinion, make one of the greatest impacts. The reason they have such an influence on the people is because they put gods into everything , if you believe a divine deity is in something like a chair you are going to respect the chair much more than if it was just a chair. You will sit in it, treat, and enjoy it much differently than thinking of it merely as a means to comfort you. Buddhism is one of theRead MoreScientific Contributions Of Buddhism And Technology1062 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Chinese Buddhism and Technology Name: Hongyi Jin Student ID: 301277714 E-mail: email@example.com Words Counter: Contant Table: Abstract Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âp.g Background and History Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â p.g Scientific Contributions of Buddhism Impacts of technology to Buddhism Positive Impact Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Negative Impact Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Results of Interviews observations Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âp.g Comments and Evaluation Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âp.g Summary Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â References Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Abstract Read MoreThe Founding Of Choson From The Korean Peninsula1400 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesrelations, military, society, and religion had all changed especially the religion. The founding of Choson can be interpreted as a religious revolution because reform-minded Confucian scholars wanted to a change. In Late Koryo, Buddhism had corrupted so much that even one of their own members wrote to fix a decadence in their religion. Confucians scholars blamed the BuddhistsÃ¢â¬â¢ mismanagement to justify their action of building a new dynasty . The shift of a state from Buddhism to Neo-ConfucianismRead MoreThe Religion Of Buddhism And Buddhism1730 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageslife. The religion of Buddhism is one of these that had this effect when it began to spread from India where it originated, to many Asian countries especially China where it would have the biggest impact. In China, Buddhism would take root and would grow to become a popular religion in the country much like the other major religions of China, Confucianism and Taoism, which together with Buddhism would later be known as the Ã¢â¬Å"Three TeachingsÃ¢â¬ . Additionally, at some point Buddhism would began to loseRead MoreEssay on The Khmer Rouge Era and the Power624 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagessystematic poverty and tyranny. During the Khmer Rouge era, Buddhism was nearly destroyed. Monks were tortured, killed and forced into lay life. Buddhist temples were destroyed and used as a prison area. After the defeat of the Khmer Rouge, Buddhism remained repressed within Cambodia. Some Buddhist monks or leaders responded with forms of social engagement. That being said, Maha Ghosananda is one the monks who played a key role in rebuilding Buddhism in Cambodia after the fall of the Khmer Rouge. His workRead MoreBuddhism and Christianity: Two Emerging Religions909 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesadapt or adopt to a certain religion because of the appealing ideas. During the first millennium C.E, two universal religions, Buddhism and Christianity, primarily spread through the idea of syncretism, although, a secondary factor contributed to the spread of these religions, which were political rulers and religious representatives such as monks and priests. Buddhism, a religion established by SiddhÃ £rtha Gautama and based on the fundamentals of reaching nirvana was initially spread by the activitiesRead MoreHinduism And Taoism802 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCompare and Contrast: Buddhism, Taoism, and Hinduism. Both Buddhism, Taoism, and Hinduism in religious context compare through origin, philosophy, and their social structures including their outlook on women. These three religious show south east Asian roots, cultural beliefs, and social conflicts and solutions. The origin and expansion of Buddhism, Taoism, and Hinduism are similar in that all of them were created in south east region of Asia and that they each expanded through the silk road inRead MoreBuddhism: The Inevitable Sweep Essay1310 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTrends are extremely predominant in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society; they engulf almost every aspect of our daily lives. Whether we notice it or not, trends affect the majority of our choices from the clothing we wear, the food we eat, the music we listen to and even the way we speak. Trends among teenagers in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society are part of a never-ending spinning cycle. Trends come, they rein for a usually short period of time and then they fade away; being replaced by the next rising fad. One aspect of our lives
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Analysis of Flipkart and Amazon. Answer: Introduction Amazon is one of the largest e-commerce companies which was founded in the year 1994 by Jeff Bezos at the back of his garage, Jeff had a clear vision in his head, to change the landscape of online shopping in the world. He identified certain lacunae with the present practices and was on a mission to change the ecosystem of how consumers shop online. Initially started as an online book seller, the companys product offering ranges to almost anything to everything .Its consumer durables, electronics, lifestyle products, home dcor, books DVD are the highest selling products (Kalia, 2015). The company is further moving in the direction of adding few million items in its existing shopping list. Amazon made a revenue of around 138 Billion USD and employs more than 500,000 employees. The companys base is in Seattle but it has registered offices in more than 12 countries and distributes products in more than 180 countries. Amazon is by far the largest e-commerce companies on the planet earth . It is estimated that almost 90 million people are active on Amazon and use its brilliant application to order products. The company has been seamlessly using the traditional and the contemporary medium of promotion to increase the brand advocacy and generate huge profits for the company (Roy Charaborti, 2017). The idea of the report here is to create a market plan for the launch of new product services at Amazon in the India market, the company wants to launch an online grocery store for its Indian audience. The idea here is to do a situational analysis, SWOT and industry analysis for the new product and the existing digital ecosystem. Further in the report, market and cost analysis will be done to have an understanding of the STP, at the end how the digital tools of marketing can be used for the penetration and promotion of its new product and services. The report will provide a comprehensive study of the digital marketing concepts in tandem to Amazon. Situational analysis refers to the collection of methods which managers use to analyse organizations internal and external environment in order to understand the capabilities, customers and business environment of the organization. SWOT is a part of situational analysis which focuses on the strength and weakness of the organization which is internal to it, and expose to opportunity and threats which are external in nature. E-commerce industry in India has boomed suddenly due to increased smartphone penetration in the worlds second largest country by population. India with a population of 1.32 Billion is one of the largest markets for the e-commerce companies. The demographic, purchasing power parity and economic liberty makes India a very promising destination. The e-commerce market is estimated at 12 billion in Gross merchandize value in the year 2016 and the market is supposed to grow at 25% CAGR. The e-commerce market in India will further show strength by penetrating in the tier 2 3 markets. People are becoming more and more aware to the benefits of e-commerce companies (Sahay, Mukherjee Dewani, 2015). Market Projections Initially the e-commerce companies were offering products related to lifestyle, fashion and entertainment, but with the increased penetration the companies started selling anything to everything. The online grocery market in India has few players like Big Basket, Grofers Flipkart, but the inability of any player to address the comprehensive needs of the Indian audience leaves a big market for Amazon to leverage the opportunity. Out of a population of 132 Billion, only 14% of the population shops online, this validates the decision of Amazon to foray into the grocery and fresh food vegetable market in India. According to early estimates the grocery market in India is poised to grow at the same pace as that of the consumer electronic and lifestyle product segments. The drivers of the online grocery market for India are: Same day delivery of vegetable products Fast delivery of the grocery items Tie up with the local stores for procurement Subsidized rates to cut the competition and strive in the Indian subcontinent. India is a diverse market, there are numerous local manufacturers, industries, e-commerce companies fighting to increase their market share and in the middle of everything is the Indian population. Understanding such a diverse and complex market is a tough job at hand. Amazon though has been successful in implementing its marketplace business model in India with great success. The company has chosen the same market to launch its Grocery and Fresh food delivery services to leverage its model of economies of scale and gain a market dominance and leadership position in the Indian Market. Segmentation Analysis and Strategy Amazon wants to launch its services initially to the Tier 1 customers and eventually after analysing the performance of the Tier 1 market, the company will move to Tier 2 and Tier 3 market audience. Market segmentation is an important element while selecting choosing the audience for the product and services. It is a process of segmenting the population in accordance to the demographics, geographic, physiographic and the behavioural characteristic of the audience. The strategy of Amazon is to target the working female population, independent living bachelors and working families. Based on the above criteria the Segmentation of Amazon grocery business segment is: Geographic Tier 1 cities of India Demographic Male and Female Age group 20-45 years Behavioural Working professionals, Newly wed couples and individual bachelors Lifestyle Millennial, Online shoppers, high affinity towards digital platforms, smartphone users. Positioning in the Marketplace Amazon has positioned itself in the Indian market as a provider of quality goods and services at the lowest price. The company is also known for its assured fast delivery to even the remote location according to the timeline it provides to its consumers. Hence, the positioning of the company is of a customer centric firm, whose policies and procedures revolve around its esteemed customer base (Prashar, Vijay, Singh Parsad, 2017). A mind map will further help in understanding the positioning of Amazon: Reliable service provider Vast collection of products Great refund policy Excellent customer support and services Timely delivery of Products Amazon prime Reliable service provider Low cost goods Procurement of goods and services Amazon cares for the country in which it operates; it always wants the local manufacturers to grow along with the company. Hence, the company is reliant on procuring from the local manufacturers and selling their goods on the platform. This marketplace model is a win win strategy for the company as well the local manufacturers, manufacturers get to sell their produce on the largest e-commerce website and Amazon makes it possible for the goods and products to even reach the remote location. Its logistic collaboration with few players in the Indian market further intensifies its procurement and order fulfilment metric (Sahu Pradhan, 2017). India is an extremely competitive market when it comes to e-commerce market. Everyday start-ups are coming up with service differentiation to attract the audience to their website, offering low prices, early discounts, bundle products and marketing promotions are some of the ways to lure the customers. Amazon on the other hand is brilliant with customer acquisition; the company uses traditional and contemporary tools of marketing in tandem to attract the customers. Some of its acquisition strategies include: Social media promotion SEO and SEM marketing(Khanna Sampat, 2015) Blogs Road shows TV Commercials Newspaper advertisements Twitter marketing Events Sponsorship All these customer acquisition strategies have been fairly successful in expansion of the customer base at Amazon. Market Tools and Applications Value Chain-It is one of the fundamental frameworks which are used to analyse the internal activites for the firm, the goal of the exercise is to understand which activities are most important to the business. In the case of Amazon, they focus on cost leadership to have a competitive edge over its competitors. Amazon relies heavily on its marketing mix to promote its product and services to its target audience. The marketing mix is a comprehensive strategy for Amazon to capture the sentiments of the Indian market Products Consumer electronics Consumer durables Lifestyle Products Fashion Home dcor Books DVD Kindle Technology products (Alexa) Price Low pricing strategy to penetrate the price sensitive Indian market Place Amazon.com the website to shop for the products Promotion Social media, digital media and offline marketing Physical evidence Branding on its packaging material, the logo, website People Excellent customer support to handle the grievance of its customers Process Customer centricity in the process designing Branding and Video Marketing Amazon is leaving no stone unturned to penetrate the Indian sub-continent and glue the Indian audience towards its new product and services. The company has collaborated exclusively with YouTube, to broadcast the video branding of its newly opened grocery market. You tube which has one of the highest eye balls from the audience across the globe, leveraging the channel for branding activities is of paramount importance. The company is also coming up with 5 -6 commercial targeting different customer segments across all the video and written content platforms to deliver the necessary impressions (Smith, Rupp Offodile, 2017) Close to 100 million people have downloaded the Amazon app for online shopping and are very happy with the experience the company provides them .The company is effectively using and leveraging the technology of big data analytics to understand the behaviour of online customers, his taste and preference, his shopping behaviour, likes and dislikes, and effectively using all this data to produce highly targeted content to them. The content is pushed to this audience either through app notifications or in form of e-mail campaigns. The purpose of this high intent promotion is to increase the traffic on its website (Kaur Wadera, 2017) Available tools of e-commerce E-commerce is spreading like a wildfire globally, busy lifestyles, more options to evaluate shopping online; ability to make comparison among products and high discounts being offered is getting the attraction of millions of customers. People who feel like shopping on the go or shop in their natural surroundings are the biggest beneficiaries of e-commerce marketing. Some of the e-commerce tools which are used by the companies for sustained profitability and increased traffic on the website are: Tools Purpose Social Media Facebook- The biggest source of revenue from Facebook is through advertisement. Companies use Facebook to remarket its product and to increase the brand awareness (Ryan, 2016). Instagram- Rapidly growing social media platform which is used for the purpose of communicating the discount, increasing brand awareness, remarket the product to the customers and create a brand recall value (Kingsnorth, 2016). Snapchat- The filters offered by Snapchat is making the platform really popular amongst the millennial, Amazon wants to leverage the growing popularity of the platform by showing content relevant to its target audience. SEO/ SEM Organic and inorganic promotion of the website and its products in the search query through effective placing of the key words in the content Blogs Blogs are being used to drive consumer awareness on the development company is doing in the Indian market. The blogs also act as backlinks which eventually increase the traffic on the website E-Mail Marketing High targeted content is pushed to the audience based on their consumer profiling(Strauss, 2016) Mobile marketing India has considerable number of smartphone users, and the people want to consume information on the go. Amazon by using the services of push notification keeps reminding people of the products in their basket, or the products which would internet them. The strategy is to indulge them in the product offering of Amazon Web Enabled Supply Chains The understanding of the concept is to derive the benefits from the online channels of marketing. The above mentioned topic can be segregated into three parts: As mentioned earlier, Search engine optimization is an organic marketing promotion through which keywords are added in the website and blogs in accordance with the relevancy of the search. The above said is done to appear on top in the search query through search engines. SEM on the contrary is an inorganic promotion tool, through which company creates ad for increased visibility in the search query. Both these tools are very useful to drive awareness of the brand and increase the traffic on Amazon website. Amazon is planning to buy few companies in India to give strength to its logistics arm; meanwhile the company has struck deals with the big logistics players in the Indian industry to help the company in fast delivery of its products. The company has created a platform for the use of both the logistic company and Amazon itself to track the shipment while it is out for delivery. The web interface seamlessly tracks order for both the stakeholders and ensures timely delivery of the products. Cloud Computing and CRM Amazon stands tall when it comes to maintain relationship with its clients. The company is customer centric not only in its business approach, but also in understanding the needs of the customers, they empathize with the customers and accordingly curate solutions to give them increased benefits. The company acknowledges every review which is posted on the website, reads and replies to every mail address to its customer service department and proactively tries to mend the service failure, wherever the company acknowledges it made a mistake. CRM is undoubtedly one of the strong areas contributing to Amazons success. Amazon web services or the cloud services, which was initially created to safely use and protect the consumer database and use it to better market the products to the customers, is one of the highest revenue generating arm of Amazon. AWS in the present day not only earns revenue for Amazon but also manages the consumer data to market products in accordance to their latent needs. Thus Amazon web services are one of the most intelligent used techniques by Amazon to improve the shopping experience of its audience. The wide scope of digital marketing has been already covered in the earlier section; however there are certain limitation to the usage and potential of digital marketing. Some of the limitation can be cited as: Due to limitless potential of the digital marketing platform it becomes difficult to track down real time consumer complaints and feedback. Customer complaints and feedback are always visible to the public; hence the company is always under public scrutiny. It is easy for a company to find itself a victim of negative influence, the openness of the digital marketing channels have given too much power in the hands of consumers which can be used to tarnish the image of the company. It is still an evolving field, every company is talking digital and social, but there are only a few companies which have mastered the art of digital marketing and using good strategies to make an impact on the consumers. Conclusion The Report can be concluded by saying that Amazon has a great opportunity in India; the company has all the tools and resources to capture the Indian grocery market and create an impact. Amazon has to leverage on its strength, which is being a customer centric company, and provide the price sensitive Indian market with best quality products in short span of time. Social and digital marketing platform will be of immense help to Amazon in continuing to increase its brand awareness and sustained profitability in the business. References Kalia, P. (2015). Top e-Retailers of India: Business Model and Components.International Journal of Electronic Marketing and Retailing,6(4), 277-298. Karthikeyan, P. (2016). A Study on Challenges Faced By Startups in Indian Logistics Sector.Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research,2(11). Kaur, B., Jain, T. (2016). Attracting Customers to Online Shopping Using Mobile Apps: A Case Study of Indian Market. InSecuring Transactions and Payment Systems for M-Commerce(pp. 117-140). Kaur, J., Wadera, D. (2017). Affiliate Marketing Strategy of Amazon India.Driving Traffic and Customer Activity Through Affiliate Marketing. Khanna, P., Sampat, B. (2015). Factors influencing online shopping during Diwali festival 2014: Case study of Flipkart and Amazon. in.Journal of International Technology and Information Management,24(2), 5. Kingsnorth, S. (2016).Digital marketing strategy: an integrated approach to online marketing. Kogan Page Publishers. Mishra, S. V., Kotkar, S. N. (2015). A Study on Current Status of E-Commerce in India: A Comparative Analysis of Flipkart and Amazon.International Journal of Advance Research in Computer Science and Management Studies. Prashar, S., Vijay, T. S., Singh, H., Parsad, C. (2017). Typology of Indian e-buyers: Clustering on the basis of Online Shopping Motives.World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development,13(1), 3-17. Roy, S. K., Charaborti, R. (2017). Case Study 5: Amazon. in: Surviving in a Jungle. InServices Marketing Cases in Emerging Markets(pp. 45-59). Springer, Cham. Ryan, D. (2016).Understanding digital marketing: marketing strategies for engaging the digital generation. Kogan Page Publishers. Sahay, A., Mukherjee, S., Dewani, P. P. (2015). Price discount framings on product bundles with shipping surcharges in the Indian market: Examining the weighted-additive and reference-dependent models.Journal of Indian Business Research,7(1), 4-20. Sahu, S. K., Pradhan, S. K. (2017).Marketing Management: An Indian Prospective. Educreation Publishing. Smith, A. D., Rupp, W. T., Offodile, O. F. (2017). Amazon. com, Inc.: Retailing Giant to High-Tech Player?(pp. 3-6). Strauss, J. (2016).E-marketing. Routledge.
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
The Westward Expansion The first British colonialists first arrived in Virginia in the 17th century. They were amazed by vastness of America. They saw a lot of potentials with the unexplored land. Throughout the succeeding centuries by means of procurements and treaties, the United States would expand from the Atlantic region to the pacific region (Westward Expansion, 2007). They use the mountains and rivers as a demarcation for American territories. The British expansion in the 1800s through the Appalachians was opposed by the Native American Indians. To protect the British territory in America, the Proclamation of 1763 was issued to protect the lands of the American colonies in these areas (Westward Expansion, 2007). Need essay sample on "The Westward Expansion" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed However, when the American War for Independence took place, the name for these lands where changed. England agreed to surrender its land west of Mississippi to the New American nation through the Treaty of Paris in 1783 (Westward Expansion, 2007). Going to the West meant moving past the Appalachian Mountains where most Native Americans were located these include the Cherokees, Chickasaws and the Choctaws. The early settlers were not yet interested in the acquisition of California and the Rocky Mountains in that period (Westward Expansion, 2007). Students Often Tell EssayLab writers: Who wants to write paper for me? Essay writers recommend: Place your order at EssayLab Some American territories were still under France, Russia, Spain and Britain when Thomas Jefferson became the third president of the new American nation. Jefferson wants to get a hold of New Orleans which was controlled by France because of its proximity to Mississippi. The trade and commerce of the new American nation was also affected through its route going to Canada and Mexico (Westward Expansion, 2007) It was a tumultuous time for Napoleon in that period where he wanted to gain more control of the French colonies in America. Napoleon engaged in many battles. He lost a great number of soldiers while fighting in a slave revolt in Haiti. France was also in conflict with Britain. Thus, the Louisiana Purchase of 1803 came into being (Westward Expansion, 2007). Thomas Jefferson asked Merriweather Lewis and Lewis Clark who were both in the army to look at the possibility of expanding the American nation from Mississippi to the Rocky Mountains. They saw that there is a great promise in these regions (Westward Expansion, 2007). In 1817-1825, the political climate in the American nation is termed as an Era of Good Feelings under James Monroe. There was a decline of partisan politics. The Democratic and Republican parties emerge in victory over the Federalist Party. James Monroe also sponsored the Monroe Doctrine in 1823 which stated that America should be free from European rule and meddling with the affairs of the states (MacroHistory, 2003). In 1828, Andrew Jackson was elected as president of the United States. Jackson was the founding-father of democracy. In the same year, voter turn-out was remarkable. As a member of the Union, Vermont was permitted to vote. Tennessee has allowed its taxpayers to exercise their freedom to take part in the election. In 1830, the Congress enacted the Indian Removal Act which gave the President the power to enter into treaties that exchanged Indian tribal lands of the eastern states for lands in the Mississippi River (Smith) An Indian territory was instituted in the eastern part of Oklahoma. In Jacksons term, thousands of lands were taken away from the Native Americans as a result of these treaties. One of the main examples of these treaties was the Treaty of Echota of 1835, which expelled the Cherokees in their own lands (MacroHistory, 2003). Through laws enacted by the U.S. government, westward expansion moved through the western part of the region past the border line. The first settlement in Kentucky was pioneered by Daniel Boone. This was ensued by the settlement of the hunters and trappers who did business with the Native Americans. These hunters traded furs and assisted new settlers to California, Oregon and Utah. The Americans did not have an issue with regards to expanding their territories particularly in California, Texas and Oregon. Western expansion was justified through the principle behind the Manifest Destiny (Smith, 1980, 353). The War between the U.S. and Mexico broke out in 1846. Mexico lost the battle against the U.S. and with the Treaty of Hidalgo, California, New Mexico and Texas became a part of the U.S. territory. These territories would eventually become the center of regional conflicts over the growth of slavery (MacroHistory, 2003) During the era of expansionism, various events had taken place such as the enactment of the Homestead Act which gave the settlers 65 hectares of land to till for a minimum amount; the Oregon Territory was established, the Texas Revolution transpired, the Mormon settlement to Utah (1846-1847), the California Gold Rush (1849), the Colorado Gold Rush and the construction of the first railroad in 1869 (MacroHistory, 2003). In retrospect, the western expansion is one of the many causes of Civil War. The expansion of the U.S. westward posted a problem for the Southern states for the balance of power in the Senate because California was seen as a free state. The South begins to withdraw from the Union. The issue of slavery became a widely debated topic. The South does not want to give up slavery (MacroHistory, 2003). As the railroad was completed in 1860, isolationism became both the domestic policy and philosophy of the United States. The country is independent of other countries in terms of trade and industry because they can now supply their own economic demands (MacroHistory, 2003) Foreign policy was handled with great care. Differences with other nations were reportedly settled amicably (MacroHistory, 2003). The economy of the Northern part of America during the Civil War expanded as a result of various industries in the 1840s. The former confederate states economy declined. The population of the country also increased from 31 million (1860) to 38 million people (1870). This is the result of settling of the new immigrants from Europe (MacroHistory, 2003). The economic expansion was termed as the railroad boom which was funded by the U.S. government. Through the construction of the transcontinental railroad, trading was made easier between the eastern and the western states. Commodities such as artificial ice and canned goods were being delivered through railways from California to the east then Europe (MacroHistory, 2003). Works Cited MacroHistory: A Prehistory to Yesterday. Inside the United States, 1865-1900. 2003. Smith, Page. The Shaping of America, a Peoples History of the Young Republic. New York: McGraw Hill, 1980.