Monday, February 24, 2020

Folding and Aggregation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Folding and Aggregation - Essay Example The three dimensional structures of proteins aid in delineating protein functions at a molecular level and the structure of proteins are determined usually with X ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy etc. Some structural features of proteins would be necessary to perform certain biochemical functions although multifunctional and structural proteins may have higher number of residues than the average of 300 residues. Large aggregates are formed as a result of folding from protein subunits and actin molecules also assemble into actin filaments. The protein structure has four distinct features including amino acid sequence of peptide chains as seen in a primary structure, secondary structures which are regular sub structures, such as strands of beta sheet, tertiary structure as seen in the three dimensional structure of a single protein molecule and quaternary structure which represents a complex of polypeptide chains and protein molecules (Copley, 1997; Berg, 2002). Proteins tend to transition between structures to perform the biological functions and this would be known as conformational changes. The primary structure of proteins with amino acid sequences would be held together by covalent peptide bonds and the extremities of the amino acid chains are known as carboxy terminus (C - terminus) and amino terminus ( N -terminus). The secondary structures are defined by their patterns of hydrogen bonds between the peptide groups although these bonds are generally not too stable except in conditions when the water concentration is low as in molten globule or fully folded states (Urbanc et al, 2006). The non specific interactions and propensities of amino acids would lead to the formation of molten globules. The tertiary structure shows structurally specific interactions within the protein domain with side chains and hydrogen bonds. The disulfide bonds tend to stabilize the tertiary structures of extra cellular proteins and reduce entropy in an unfolded state. The 4 levels of protein structure are given diagrammatically as follows - Figure I - From, biology courses, 2005 handouts The formation of proteins could be explained as the combination of two amino acids in a condensation reaction and long chains of residues such as amino acids in peptide bond. The sequence of amino acids forms the primary structure of the peptide or protein and is determined by a gene. Within the primary structure, a sequence of nucleotides in DNA is transcribed into mRNA and this is translated by a ribosome and the sequence tends to define the structure and functions of the protein and would be unique to any specific protein. Determining the sequence of nucleotides within the primary structure would actually help in defining the protein (Berg, 2002; Copley, 1997). In the secondary structure, alpha helix and beta sheet saturate the peptide and secondary structures tend to occur most frequently in most proteins. The secondary structure elements tend to have a regular geometry with specific values and are usually folded into a shape with loops and turns (Berg, 2002, Copley, 1997). Terti ary structures are formed with interactions such as hydrogen bonding and ionic interactions and

Friday, February 7, 2020

Wal-Mart and Multi-Brand Retailing in India Assignment

Wal-Mart and Multi-Brand Retailing in India - Assignment Example Discovering new markets and designing new products have always been like adventures. It involves risks that can even jeopardize a firm’s existence. On the other hand, it involves potential returns that can take the firm to newer heights. After the Global Financial Crisis of 2008, the consumer demand in the developed world has remained tepid for a long time. At this situation the global growth is being mainly driven by the emerging markets. Among the emerging markets, while China has a good investment story, India has a good consumption story. Here in this paper, we will look at the possible strategies and their implications for starting a multi brand retail chain in India from the perspective of retail giant, Wal-Mart’s. It is necessary to mention here that the Indian Parliament has not given green signal to foreign investment in multi-brand retail. Wal-Mart has existence in India via the joint venture Bharti Wal-Mart Private Limited. Bharti Enterprises is one of Indiaà ¢â‚¬â„¢s foremost production houses. In the context of this contract, Bharti and Wal-Mart possess ‘50:50 stakes’ in Bharti Wal-Mart Private Limited. It is setting up wholesale cash-and-carry provisions and back-end supply chain administration systems to be at par with Government of India rules. The ‘first Wholesale Cash-and-carry facility named "Best Price Modern Wholesale" opened in Amritsar in May 2009 and subsequently in Zirakpur, Jalandhar, Kota, Bhopal, Ludhiana, Raipur, Indore, Vijaywada, Meerut, Agra, Lucknow, Jammu, Guntur, Aurangabad, Bathinda and Amravati’ ... Also, the process of reaching agreements with emerging market customers was ‘cumbersome and lengthy’. At the same time, there was not much information about the market potential and associated strategies for the emerging markets (Cavusgil et al. 2002, pp.17-18). Diffusion of skills, processes, and technologies throughout the global markets resulted in a convergence. The difference between budding markets and the industrial economies is narrowing. The forecast potential of these markets is increasing (Khanna & Palepu, 2010, p.13). Now the market potential is no longer too small for marketing efforts. Many emerging economies are investing in transportation, power, and communication infrastructure. Also the modern management techniques and close working relationship with foreign counterparties have helped to bring down the cost of sales. Though there are inter-cultural differences, managers have realized the value of a global ‘win-win’ relationship (Cavusgil et al. 2002, pp.18-19). The opportunities connected with low-income markets are becoming gradually more obvious to both scholars and managers. There is evidently more than meets the eye when considering customers with annual purchasing power parity (PPP) of $1500 or less (Prahalad & Hart, 2002, p.2). A vast majority of people work chiefly in the big, unseen, informal economies. These are not reflected in official gross national product or purchasing power parity statistics. Across the globe, it has been expected that the unofficial sector comprises more than $9 trillion in unregistered assets. The value of economic transactions in these sectors may even surpass that has been recorded for the formal economic sectors (London & Hart, 2004, p.2). The superiority and extent of the obtainable product and