Saturday, August 31, 2019

The Oort Cloud

The Oort Cloud The Oort cloud is a vast swarm of some 2 trillion comets orbiting our star in the most distant reaches of our solar system, extending from beyond the orbits of Neptune and Pluto out to 100,000 times the Earth-Sun distance. Almost one-third the distance to the nearest star. While the planets are confined to a flattened disk in the solar system, the Oort cloud forms a spherical shell centered on the Sun, which gradually flattens down to an extended disk in the inner region, called the Kuiper belt.Bright comets observed through telescopes or with the naked eye get thrown out of the Oort cloud or Kuiper belt, and become visible when they get close to enough so that the Sun's energy can transform the surface ices into gases. These gases drag off the embedded dust, and we see the light reflected from the dust as a tail. Comets are the leftover icy building blocks from the time of planet formation, which formed in the region of the outer planets. Essentially thesecomets are d irty snowballs, composed primarily of water ice, with some carbon monoxide and other ices, in addition to interstellar dust.When their orbits passed close enough to the giant planets to be affected, some were thrown toward the Sun and some were tossed outward toward the distant reaches of the solar system, the spherical swarm we now call the Oort cloud. Some of the comets sent inward hit the inner rocky planets, and probably contributed a significant amount of ocean water and organic material, the building blocks of life, to Earth. Comets that live in the Oort cloud are especially important scientifically because they have been kept in a perpetual deep freeze since the formation of our solar system 4. 6 billion years ago.This means that they preserve, nearly intact, a record of the chemical conditions during the first few million years of the solar system's history, and can be used to unravel our solar system's origins much like an archaeologist uses artifacts to decipher an ancient civilization. The Oort cloud is thought to occupy a vast space from somewhere between 2,000 and 5,000 AU (0. 03 and 0. 08 ly)[12] to as far as 50,000Â  AU (0. 79Â  ly)[3] from the Sun. Some estimates place the outer edge at between 100,000 and 200,000 AU (1. 58 and 3. 16 ly). [12] The region can be subdivided into a spherical outer Oort cloud of 20,000–50,000 AU (0. 2–0. 79 ly), and a doughnut-shaped inner Oort cloud of 2,000–20,000 AU (0. 03–0. 32 ly). The outer cloud is only weakly bound to the Sun and supplies the long-period (and possibly Halley-type) comets to inside the orbit of Neptune. [3] The inner Oort cloud is also known as the Hills cloud, named after J. G. Hills, who proposed its existence in 1981. [13] Models predict that the inner cloud should have tens or hundreds of times as many cometary nuclei as the outer halo;[13][14][15] it is seen as a possible source of new comets to resupply the relatively tenuous outer cloud as the latter's nu mbers are gradually depleted.The Hills cloud explains the continued existence of the Oort cloud after billions of year The outer Oort cloud is believed to contain several trillion individual objects larger than approximately 1Â  km (0. 62Â  mi)[3] (with many billions with absolute magnitudes brighter than 11—corresponding to approximately 20Â  km (12Â  mi) diameter), with neighboring objects typically tens of millions of kilometres apart. Its total mass is not known with certainty, but, assuming that Halley's comet is a suitable prototype for all comets within the outer Oort cloud, the estimated combined mass is 3? 025Â  kg (7? 1025Â  lb or roughly five times the mass of the Earth). Earlier it was thought to be more massive (up to 380 Earth masses), but improved knowledge of the size distribution of long-period comets has led to much lower estimates. The mass of the inner Oort Cloud is not currently known. If analyses of comets are representative of the whole, the vast majority of Oort-cloud objects consist of various ices such as water, methane, ethane, carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide.However, the discovery of the object 1996Â  PW, an asteroid in an orbit more typical of a long-period comet, suggests that the cloud may also contain rocky objects. Analysis of the carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in both the Oort cloud and Jupiter-family comets shows little difference between the two, despite their vastly separate regions of origin. This suggests that both originated from the original protosolar cloud,a conclusion also supported by studies of granular size in Oort-cloud comets by the recent impact study of Jupiter-family comet.

Picasso: Artist Extraordinaire

It was as array of Blue all over – some were cold, some skeptic, some with the desire to escape and mellow in the sky. Some were intense and challenging, while some other were diminutive and soothing. Together they reflected the state of their creator, who was then at the crossroad of his life – Mr. Pablo Ruiz Picasso! The genius of the geniuses, Pablo Picasso has left quite a few messages for the rest of the world – and very important one at that – because it is in the essence of those messages, lies the secret of his success.His Blue period happens to be a prominent slice of a painter who would rise to the zenith of name and fame later, much like a phoenix from the debris of despair, pathos and taunting ambience. Even a peep into his life would evoke anyone to identify the Blue period as his springboard – anyone would be excited to discover that how much power a parsimonious condition can generate for those who are willing. His life highlights the positive impact of poverty and drudgery in the making of a genius.The canvas of Picasso's life, in fact holds a picture that would always speak about the potential of human mind – that it is like a magic spring – the more you suppress it, the more it garners energy to outmaneuver its obstacles – or, from another perspective, it is from the chaos the universe of Picasso was born! The facts of Picasso's life shatters a good many myths about ‘chances rule human', and substantiates the fact that it is ‘humans who create chances' – a lesson as sparkling as a diamond to those who are deprived by the affluence of even basic amenities to bloom to their best.Thus this essay makes a humble survey on the life and works of this master of the masters, Pablo Picasso, with special emphasis on Blue Period, and how it impacted the proceedings of his life after, before reaching its own conclusion about the special messages that one can learn from his life besi des, indicating on the impact of â€Å"Blue Period† over the artists' movements.The protagonist, the central character of this magical example of human triumph, Pablo Ruiz Picasso was born on October 25th in Malaga, Spain, in the year 1881 and went to live on earth for 91 years, holding a unique collage of events, inventions, rendezvous and, most importantly, time-winning creations between the years of his charismatic existence. Thus it is impossible to discuss the Blue period without knowing about his background, which had a solid bearing on the rest of his life. A child Picasso would mingle with the gypsies, the outsiders of the society – their bohemian lifestyle had been a source of attraction to him (Picasso: Magic).It was his father Don Jose, who was an artist, a museum curator and a teacher all rolled into one, identified the latent talent in Picasso very early and engaged the boy into art. After having initial lessons from his father at home, Picasso joined Acad emy of Fine Arts at La Corupa, Spain, where his father was a teacher. He was then only a boy of 14 years, but that did not deter him to master the nuances of anatomy. That stint was short-lived as the family moved on to Barcelona, Spain in 1895, where both father and his son joined the Academy of Fine Arts, one as a teacher and the other as a student.Here the genius in Picasso first appeared before the world, when he startled everyone by qualifying for the advanced classes, after proving his astounding capabilities through completing the entrance test in a single day, which even the older boys would have taken whole month to complete! The jury board [†¦ ] of the entrance tests instantly declared him a prodigy. (Picasso: Artist Extraordinaire) During their stay in Barcelona, Picasso came across a new experience, and that was of [†¦ ] nude study and painting of the models. His uncle, Dr.Salvador Ruiz Blasco, who was very much impressed by the talent of the young boy, had arr anged everything for Picasso in his house at Malaga (Picasso). Next year he had his first painting making way to an exhibition. And no wonder, Picasso felt he has outgrown this academy very soon – as he left it to join at the Madrid Academy – which he would leave too in no time – before joining the band of young avant-garde artists, writers and poets, who would gather at a local tavern, Els Quatre Gats and were known as â€Å"modernistes† (Picasso: The Early Years)This group would discuss the revolutionary ideas under the then context – like symbolism, graphic arts etc. and accorded the French art nouveau, which used simplified versions of artistic nuances. Most of them were plagued by parsimony, and thus were on the same boat of poverty and uncertainty. Picasso visited Paris in October 1900, and from then on kept on shuttling between France and Spain. At this time Parisian nightlife caught his fancy and that resulted in some of his works that depi cted dark cafe or the destitute people, besides his usual works of landscapes, portraits.That was the foundation of this great man before he decided to meet the world with his treasure of art – with no footing whatsoever in the elite circle in the Paris, which was considered to be the stepping stone for an aspiring artist. And, he came, he worked, and worked, and worked – before leaving behind a legacy of a goliath. Blue Period In walked 1901 – by then his childhood favorites, the gypsies, perhaps vanished into blue, but the spirit of their bohemianism might have helped him to shrug off the shortcomings of not being a blue-eyed boy of any of the denizens of the art world of Paris.Yet, how would he know someday the world would earmark his formative years before becoming a true-blue artist, as ‘Blue Period'! In this period, especially between the period 1901-1903, Picasso had been able to gain direction in his painting, while his personal started evolving ou t of the situations, other painters' works and his deep understanding of the situations. This was the beginning of the â€Å"Blue Period†, where Picasso decided to confine within the color scheme of blue – which has already been considered as the color of pathos by many. That idea and the ongoing [†¦] parsimonious culture among the budding intellectuals around provided him the necessary momentum to stick to his decision (Blue, 2007). Thus this new line of painting by him started appearing in public – where he consciously highlighted the hapless state of humans with the mastery of forms of and usage of blue, which proved to be revelation for the contemporary art world (Picasso: The Early Years). The period 1901 – 1904 is roughly considered as the â€Å"Blue Period† of this great painter, when he would do his paintings and sketches mostly with various shades of blue.That coinage might outwardly justify itself with this strange practice of Picass o – but on the deeper level, the same coinage carries the connotation of a lone struggle of a painter that was further made difficult by emotional swings with the death of his dear friend Carlos Casagemas – who committed suicide after failing in love. Casagemas was the bosom pal of Picasso. Thus the shock of death and horror of suicide dominated in his painting, â€Å"The death of Casagemas†, which also bears the testimony of his learning process – as the painting has clear influence of Van Gogh's style.The same can be said [†¦ ] about his his work â€Å"Portrait of Jaime Sabartes (the beer glass)', which reminds about ‘Absinthe Drinker', a painting done by Gauguin (Blue, 2007). He created three portraits of Casagemas as a corpse, the last of his pictures showing colors for a prolonged period. The â€Å"Blue Period† also holds an account of Montmarte's nightlife, where Picasso and his friends would visit regularly. Those carefree moment s, however marked by limitation to enjoyment or engulfed by the cloud of uncertainty, sparked the imagination of this great painter.There were plethora of events, adventures and moments of solitude and despair – a constant swing between those two extreme poles perhaps made him more resilient inwards, otherwise how could he depict the sorrows of others so vividly? One such instance might add some color to this essay. Once Picasso went to visit a women's prison Called St. Lazare in Paris, and found nuns were serving as guards. That prompted him to paint â€Å"Two Sisters†, which evokes the image of Mary in mind, more because of the presence of blue rather than anything else (Picasso's).Then, there was this painter in his twenties, Picasso – cramped by extreme poverty and grief, was in all blue, before he became a star in the world of art. It was a period when he would find it difficult to arrange two square meals a day, save spending for oil paints and canvases or socializing with impresarios. Yet he worked on – that was the only thing he could do – he worked on with whatever he had with him – cheap blue color, a heart wailing for the lost friend, wondrous ideas in head, and, enormous zeal to communicate with his own visual language.And, it was that blue color, already recognized as the color of inner grief, had provided him the perfect medium for his message of the time. Thus it became blue all the way, deep, light, dark.. in every possible way it aided Picasso to express his sorrows in all possible dimensions – be it form, content or medium – all of them would echo the inner chaos of a twenty-year old who has just started the battle to gain his ground in one of most sacred colonies of art and culture, and right at the kick-off who received a jolt by losing his great friend and aide in Paris.It was that chaos which gave birth to the paintings like â€Å"Trait† (1901) or â€Å"The Tragedy† (19 03), which puts forth his desire and despair – while his self-portrait presents him as a happy-go-like romantic man with dreamy eyes, â€Å"The Tragedy† looked all gloomy, down in despair, where a family of three are looking downwards, visibly hopeless and as if nowhere to go, nothing to eat, and have nothing left to meet the basic needs of today, save the tomorrow! That was a beggar family whom Picasso covered by clothes, yet made naked with poverty, something he himself shared with them in this period.This speaks of the dichotomy that was prevalent in the time and also in the mind of Picasso, because, unless there was inspiration from both inside and outside by any means, Picasso wouldn't have been bent on to create such paintings of two extreme poles in close interval. Another interesting aspect of those paintings is their coming of age in a new avatar – that spoke of Picasso's own poor state, where he could not afford to buy canvases for new drawings and had to settle on the old ones. â€Å"What comes out in the end is the result of the discarded funds† (Picasso's Technique), he would say, perhaps to find a solace in his finesse in recycling!In fact, the researchers could find that the canvas used for â€Å"The Tragedy† contains sketches as old as 1899, while â€Å"The Tragedy† was finished in 1903. So much so, with the help of x-radiograph, they have been able to decipher that those sketches gave birth to one of his bullfight paintings. This clearly shows how misery had forced this great genius to abandon his work for the sake of new work. Perhaps all that boiled down to a sentiment, which saw a recurrence of the theme â€Å"like desolation of the outcasts† in his paintings of the â€Å"Blue Period†.Time and again researchers have identified Picasso's penchant for using excessive blue in this period as his conscious decision to use it as another medium of communication. And he did that with elan â₠¬â€œ the figures he depicted in this period was mostly of the lower rung of the society, ranging from beggars to prostitutes or the circus-people – even not to leave himself or his penniless friends – he dowsed all of them with blue to depict the world of despair that usually engulfs when people are caught with limitations and uncertainty.Obviously all his works are endowed with his mastery over form and content, yet it was blue that adds more dimensions to them, and at times, even issues more appeal than everything. He even would wear blue clothes in those days! Associating colors with sentiments was nothing new, yet the utilization of a color as the medium of the message was unique in his case. The use of blue color to depict sadness was prevalent even in the Anglo-Saxon culture (Pablo, 2007).However, Picasso's own statement, â€Å"It was thinking about Casagemus that got me started painting in blue† (Pablo Picasso blue period), helps all to associate his pers pective of blue as a language of inner grief or melancholy. This was supplemented by his own poor state where it became hard at times to arrange a good meal. â€Å"My dear Max, I think about the room on the boulevard Voltaire, about the omelets, the beans, the Brie and the fried potatoes. But I als think about the days of misery, and it's quite sad,† So he wrote afterwards to his friend, poet Max Jacob, the partner of his struggling days.Alongside, â€Å"Blue Period† was nonetheless a training session for Picasso, where he experimented with low light conditions, which perhaps gained momentum from the proverbial presence of pathos in blues or the prevalent culture of the then intellectuals who wanted to glorify by the poverty or take pride in the idea that an artist is generally considered as an outcast! There was definitely another reason, and that was his intense desire to be different from the crowd! The qualitative factors achieved by the use of blue also signify hi s tendency to experiment in those days.The paintings of a boy of twenty years as if serving as a passage to the dreamland with blue spectacles – that was something unthinkable before the traditional art. Some of his paintings would evoke a pall of gloom with the deeper shades of blue – yet the quality of luminance in them would make anyone stop and think about that gloom for a while. Thus, blue served for him as a strong language of visual communication. The presence of poverty and extreme difficulty has been reflected in most of his works in this period, either directly, or indirectly.For the first instance, the painting â€Å"Frugal Repast† depicts a destitute couple sharing a frugal supper of bread and wine; â€Å"Crouching Woman† depicts the hapless condition of a lonely, poor woman. He went back to Barcelona and started a painting with complex allegory called â€Å"La Vie†, a remake job over his earlier â€Å"Last Moments†, which took t urn from being a self-portrait to someone resembling Casagemus by its features, thereby making the journey of his â€Å"Blue Period† coming to a full circle with a tribute to the departed friend.Set in a studio, La Vie is considered as one of the most complex works done by him, and in the context of the period, contains the essence of his learning in the Blue Period, the lessons of which were mostly about the cruel side of the world, and were about how one could find the right path to move on. The scholars are still divided about the message hidden in this painting, where a nude woman clings to a male with only white loincloth on; who as if points towards another woman in heavy dress and holding a baby in her arms. These three figures stand behind a perspective that contains two canvases set on different layers, where[†¦] two clinging nude women adorn the upper canvas while another such figure is seen on her knees (â€Å"La Vie†, 2006). Perhaps this complexity, th is enigmatic, personal statement in â€Å"La Vie† speaks about the acorn that was now ready to bloom as a giant oak – this perhaps the most potent message conveyed by this painting of the master. Elements of Blue Period John Richardson, Picasso's biographer and his close friend, had almost devoted his life in deciphering the enigmas that are layered with Picasso's phases of evolution as a multi-dimensional creator.In that research, â€Å"Blue Period† holds a special place. Before anything, Richardson weighed certain elements that had influenced Picasso's mind right at his childhood. Richardson drew a parallel of Picasso's lifestyle with the philosophy of the gypsies and in the occult culture prevalent among the members of Andalusia, a region in southern Spain, which is the native place of Picasso. According to Richardson, the people of that region were found to be superstitious in nature, which would affect their actions too, and Picasso being one of them could not escape that influence.Because of being superstitious, once he found appreciation for using blue tone in that period and people accepted that, he had considered it as a good omen for his painting career and was stuck to it for quite sometime (Picasso: Magic). Even his days at La Coruna substantiates such claims of Richardson, where a young Picasso was deeply moved by tarot cards (Picasso: The Early Years). There can be another argument that points at a unique confluence of events that led to a series of ‘blue' creations by Picasso. This corroborates Richardson's assumptions too, by taking the superstition factor into account.This idea conjures up situations like Picasso's superstition about blue, his belief that blue is the messenger of inner grief, and his childhood and the then association with poverty or grief-stricken people. These situations might have been culminated into a series of paintings with blue tones – where Picasso wanted to give vent to his pent-up e motions, or he wanted to depict the haplessness of the poor or outcasts like gypsies or circus people, and he wanted to present them in a medium which he thought would convey the message best – blue.And he was conscious of his own poor state too – thus he didn't mind for once to operate from reality by including himself as one of the subjects of Blue Period. He did not ignore the pathos within him, and instead, accepted them as the way of life. This idea is corroborated by Jaime Sabartes, then his closest friend: â€Å"Picasso believed Art to the son of Sadness and Suffering†¦ that sadness lent itself to meditation and that suffering was fundamental to life†¦ If we demand sincerity of an artist, we must remember that sincerity is not to be found outside the realm of grief† (Picasso and the Mood).In all, this was the period where he was tested by all possible roadblocks, which had forced him to bring out his best to cope that challenge. This was the per iod when Picasso stepped into the mystic realm of spiritualism and ethereal ideas – all fueled by death, despair, poverty and uncertainty. Therefore, this period in his life had gifted him the prime elements of success, all in disguise – the required zeal, the expansion of mind and deep feeling for fellow humans. ConclusionThe Blue Period of Pablo Picasso is essentially a documentary of a collage of situations, which not only unfurls the stages of Picasso's blooming as an artist, but also refers to certain ideas about the then social condition, the locomotion of art and culture of Paris, etc. But the greatest messages lie in another direction – where this period talks about how one's childhood association creates impact on one's creative pursuits, or how a human being emerges as victorious in front of the challenges of extinction.This era also marks his coming of age with various types of practice, development of ideas and eventually the birth of a new style wit h seeds of his other periods like â€Å"Rose Period† or â€Å"Cubism†. The gathering of a bubbling gang of intellectuals at Montmartre or Picasso's association with them, all speaks about a wonderful movement of art and culture led by people who even took pride in considering themselves as outcasts for the sake of art.Together all these, â€Å"Blue Period† depicts a unique march of time, which not only benefited Picasso to rise his height in the future, but also it provided a solid documentation of time. Pablo Picasso's â€Å"Blue Period† is indeed a lesson to all who are interested to fight and win from the wretched state, besides the aspiring painters. It also highlights the effect of death and the power of humanity over the creative manifestation of perfection in an artist; rest lies with Picasso himself, who took away a lot of hint with him, leaving a big box of enigma for the posterity!Ends Works Cited â€Å"Picasso: Artist Extraordinaire. † . . 4 Dec. 2007 . Blue period. . 3 Dec. 2007 . La Vie. . Cleveland Museum of Art. 4 Dec. 2007 . Pablo Ruiz Picasso (Spain) 1881-1973. 4 Dec. 2007 . Picasso – Magic, Sex and Death. Ed. W Januszczak. 4 Dec. 2007 .Picasso and the Mood of a Painting. Color Vision and Art. 4 Dec. 2007 . Picasso. Ed. H. L. C. Jaffe. 4 Dec. 2007 . Picasso: The Artist's Studio. 3 Dec. 2007 . Picasso's Blue Period 1901-1904. . 4 Dec. 2007 .Picasso's Technique. 4 Dec. 2007 . Rubin, W. Picasso in the Collection of the Museum of Modern ArtRev. 5 Dec. 2007 . Warncke, C. P. Pablo Picasso 1881-1973. 5 Dec. 2007 Picasso: The Early Years, 1892-1906. 5 Dec. 2007. . Pablo Picasso blue period. 4 Dec. 2007. .

Friday, August 30, 2019

Black America Civil Rights History Essay

How far do you agree that the Black Power movement hindered black civil rights in the 1960s? The Black Power movement significantly hindered Black civil rights in the 1960s to quite a large extent; however other factors contributed to hindering black civil rights in the 1960s such as failure of MLK, White opposition and Civil rights divisions. Black Power clearly hindered the black civil rights movement in the 1960s due to the black panthers which were formed in 1966 and involved around 5,000 members. They were very much influenced by Malcolm X and they wanted to defend their communities from the police. They wanted to bring equality for the working classes; here they hindered the black civil rights movement because they tried to get their message across through violence which led to the blacks gaining an even worse name for themselves due to this group. Black panthers also hindered the black civil rights movement through police brutality. They followed police cars in the ghettos in order to expose police brutality. Black panthers therefore did hinder the black civil rig hts movement significantly due to their violent ways and giving a bad name for the blacks so people’s views did not change about blacks, if anything got worse. The failure of MLK was another factor which hindered the black civil rights, less significantly than Black power however. In Chicago MLK protested against poor ghetto conditions of poor urban blacks. MLK was also not as popular in the north of America as the south and he failed to bring about social and economic change. During 1964/65 there was De Jure segregation but no change to De Facto. MLK’s peaceful protests hindered the black civil rights less so than Black Power due to MLK bringing about awareness through the protests of the harsh treatment of blacks, making many feel sorry for them and some change their attitudes to the blacks who were being treated unfairly. For example, the sit ins in Woolworths with four black students, made them desegregate their lunch counters which raised awareness and meant lack of business for them showed just how harsh blacks were treated. White opposition contributed to the hindering black civil rights, the KKK for example continued to u se violence and bombed a black church after the Birmingham campaign. White citizen councils still held strong. White opposition tried their best to make blacks out to be non equal to them and for blacks not to deserve civil rights. Until 1964, white citizen councils prevented integration in schools in Mississippi. As school desegregation  increased, in some white communities the white citizen councils set up schools privately for white children. Civil Rights Bill was also weakened by congress meaning it hindered the black civil rights movement, however white opposition on slightly contributed to hindering black civil rights because the decisions in congress however didn’t affect the going forward of the acts. Similar to white opposition ,Civil rights divisions also slightly hindered black civil rights movement. Civil rights groups disagreed over tactics (mainly violence or non violence), black and whites working together and integration or separation. In 1967, MLK part of SCLC were against the war, however NAACP continued to support the war and Johnson in order to keep federal support so there was a major clash amongst civil rights groups here. NAACP also refused to work with SNCC and CORE after Me redith was shot. Civil rights divisions therefore slightly hindered the black civil rights movement because even though they all wanted their own, different ways to bring about civil rights for blacks, they all aimed to get civil rights for blacks whether non violent or violent or through separation or integration. They all contributed to bringing about the civil rights movement but in different ways therefore one could say that civil rights divisions only slightly hindered civil rights movement. In conclusion, Black Power was by far the significant factor which hindered black civil rights movements, however the failure of MLK and peaceful protests also hindered black civil rights but to a much less extent. White opposition and civil rights divisions hindered the civil rights movement the least however did contribute to hindering black civil rights as a whole. How accurate is it to say that peaceful protests were the most important reason for the improvement in the civil rights in the years 1955-68? MLK’s policy of peaceful protest was fairly important for the success of the civil rights movement in the years 1955-68, however there were other factors which contributed to the success of the civil rights movement such as Civil Rights groups, Black Power and media. It is therefore accurate to say that MLK’s peaceful protest was not the most important reason for the success of the civil rights movement as the most important reason is civil rights groups and medi a. MLK’s peaceful protests were fairly important in the success of the civil rights movement in the years 1955-68, however not the most important reason. It is safe to say that the protests were fairly important  because SCLC concentrated on the specific racial problems that needed addressing in the south, which was the place where there was the worst racial equality. MLK set up SCLC group in 1957. Some would say that MLK’s peaceful protests were fairly important because King’s main strategy was to attract national attention to racial inequality. This started in a March in Washington in 1963. King demanded the vote for all blacks in front of a crowd of 20,000 outside Lincoln memorial in May 1957. However, MLK’s peaceful protests were only fairly important in the sense that SCLC achieved little in the 3 years after Montgomery with sit ins and wasn’t entirely impactful other than gaining publicity, for the civil rights movement a big success was not made with the peaceful protests. On the other hand Civil Rights Groups were clearly the most important reason for the success of the civil rights movement in the years 1955-68. Other peaceful protest groups such as SNCC, CORE and NAACP were more successful during the civil rights movement. Much of their work was more impactful than MLK’s peaceful protests. For example, during the Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955, NAACP wanted to challenge segregation on the buses and Rose Parks started the Boycott. Without this group MLK wouldn’t have been able to st art his peaceful protests. NAACP were more impactful durwing the civil rights movement especially when James Meredith tried to enter the University of Mississippi but was barred. The NAACP then forced a Supreme court decision to overturn the South state. The governor let Meredith in but without protections, this led to white mobs shooting 2 people and JFK sent federal troops in to protect him. This raised more awareness than MLK’s peaceful protests did and was more impactful which led to a greater improvement in the civil rights movement between 1955-68. Another factor which contributed to the success of the civil rights movement, but contributed less significantly than civil rights groups was Black Power. Black power drew a lot of attention during the 1960s which contributed to the civil rights movement. Economic situation of the blacks during Black Power improved in the first half of the twentieth century, however the ghettos remained centres of poverty, unemployment, poor housing and schooling and constant violence. This is why Black Power only contributed to the success of the civil rights movement in a less significant way than civil rights groups. Black power brought about Black Panther group who had more than 5000  members, and their 30 chapters were mostly in urban centres on the West Coast. They won a great deal of respect in the ghettos, especially for their emphasis on self help. They also set up ghetto clinics to advise on health. Black Power, however was not the most important reason for the success of the civil rights movement due to them being held back by white’s reacting badly. Media also contributed to the success of the civil rights movement and was very much important in helping the civil rights groups publicise events to raise awareness in the years 1955-68. At almost all of the protests and events involving gaining greater equality for blacks there was media coverage which brought attention to the harsh treatment of blacks. For example, during the Freedom Rides of 1961, protestors faced fierce white reactions which brought about publicity and showed pictures of KKK setting fire to the buses which was very impactful as it showed the public a real life pictures of how badly the blacks were being treated. Media however only contributed partially to the success of the civil rights movement as even though it bought about awareness, it did not however make impactful change to how blacks were being treated. In conclusion, it is not totally accurate to say that MLK’s peaceful protests were the most important reason for the success of the civil rights movement in the years 1955-68 because Civil Rights groups were more impactful and gave a greater chance for blacks to gain equality. Both media and Black power brought about awareness for civil rights movement however did not have a great impact in changing lives for blacks. MLK’s peaceful protests however did start the civil rights movement and events such as the Montgomery bus boycott were successful partially and contributed to the success of the civil rights movement between 1955-68.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Interim Progress Review Question 5 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Interim Progress Review Question 5 - Essay Example normal distribution for the given sample, because the sample is a randomly distributed set of human reactions—which ideally fall in the pattern of the normal distribution. The 95% confidence interval is given by the formula where M is the mean, SE is the standard error of the distribution, and z is the z-score for the confidence interval being used. The standard score z is derived by subtracting the sample mean from an individual raw score and then dividing the difference by the sample standard deviation. z represents the number of standard deviations between the raw score and the mean. (b) CNN and ActMedia provided a television channel that showed news feature and advertisements. It was targeted at people waiting in grocery checkout queues. The television programmes were designed with a 8 minute cycles on the assumption that the population mean time a customer stands in the queue is 8 minutes. A sample of 120 shoppers at a major grocery store produces a sample mean waiting time of 7.5 minutes with a sample standard deviation of 3.2 minutes. There is a close relationship between confidence intervals and significance tests. Specifically, if a statistic is significantly different from 0 at the 0.05 level then the 95% confidence interval will not contain 0. All values in the confidence interval are plausible values for the parameter whereas values outside the interval are rejected as plausible values for the parameter. ... There is a similar relationship between the 99% confidence interval and Significance at the 0.01 level. (Lane, Lu, Peres, Zitek) Adding and subtracting from the figure of 7.5 hours, only 5% of normally distributed queues will last longer than 7.5 + 0.57496 = 8.07496 minutes. To be more precise, 95.46% of queues will fall within (7.5 - 0.57496) = minutes and 8.07496 minutes = 8 min 4.498 seconds. We can also go the p-value and t test way, using the "level of significance" method. Since we cannot obtain the p-values directly, we thought of

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Importance of Play Pedagogy in the Curriculum for Young Children's Essay

Importance of Play Pedagogy in the Curriculum for Young Children's Learning and Development - Essay Example r hand is a preset framework that outlines all what learners should be taught the quality and to some extent the methods that should be used, it however provides allowance for the teacher to act flexible based on the education setting or context. Most definitions of play tend to emphasize on the fact that it is a non-serious activity done for enjoyment especially for children, bearing this general definition in mind, one immediately sees why the idea of uniting it to pedagogy and curriculum would be a challenge to many. Pedagogy is seen as a formal and serious construct and there traditional schools f though imagined that the only rile lay would serve in pedagogy was disruptive as opposed to constructive. Therefore this ensured that play was separated from the curriculum and by extension pedagogy, however studies by constructivists such as Vygostky and Piaget have in the past few decades revolutionize this perception. Background Archaeological and anthropological records show evidenc e of the presence of play, dating back to the prehistoric times, since in various sites, archaeologist have discovered several items that are attributed to a playful human history. This evidence includes dice gaming sticks and bones all, which can be traced as far back to the Palaeolithic era (Fox 1977). Excavations in countries like China have discovered miniature metal and clay toys that are presumed to have been used by children, in addition there in the Egyptian temples there are drawings of adults and children actively engaged in play. Historical and anthropological studies in to the nature of the European childhood have revealed that like today, the classical Greek and roman cultures valued play and comparative analysis indicate that much of what is practiced today evolved from the ex... This paper stresses that role play in pedagogy has radically changed and diversified over time and there is little doubt that it will continue to do so in posterity. However it remains a serious challenge for anyone to make a definitive prediction of the future of the construct owing to the extensive differences in the implementation and integration of play in curriculum. For one despite policy regarding EYFE, many teacher do not spend as much time as they should assisting or supervising play because they fear, rightfully so, that it will negatively affect the measurable output form their learner which in the paper grades. This report makes a conclusion that while there are those who hold that didactic learning is more important than play, empirical and theoretical knowledge proves beyond any doubt that children benefit a great deal from play especially when applied creatively by the teacher. An examination of the various types of play reveals that from the time they are born a child will try to engage in some sort of play and it is through such activity that they interact with the world and independently develop, social, cognitive intellectual and other skills. Therefore it is essential that institutions and individual engaged in pedagogy take to consideration the benefits of play and create time space and opportunity for children to play since in the long run, they will be better students and more balanced in terms of social cognitive advancement if they have ample chances to play as opposed to being continuously drilled.

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Assignment 6.5 Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

6.5 - Assignment Example He also turned down the red velvet cape that Benedict wore when he was presented to the world for the first time in 2005, choosing the simple white cassock of the papacy instead† (Winfield par. 11). Pope Francis’ radical leadership style has been assessed and it included the following perspectives: (1) actions speaking greater than words; (2) use words honestly and build bridges, especially to those one is in disagreement with; (3) focus on good management, in contrast to nice management; (4) use power to amplify good character (Asghar). The accomplishments of Pope Francis, to date include, considering just one year when he held the helm of the papacy are as follows: (1) emphasized modesty and became a model of frugality by replacing lavish traditional practices; (2) opined a radical view on homosexuality by asserting non-discrimination, not ridiculing or by not being judgmental; (3) â€Å"it has been discovered that Pope Francis regularly leaves the Vatican at night to feed the homeless. Dressed as an ordinary priest, he joins Archbishop Konrad Krajewski to feed the poor of Rome† (Why Pope Francis is the Person of the Year par. 8); (4) the Pope recently canonized two popes: John XXIII and John Paul II (U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops); (5) acknowledged the way to reach the youths through social networking sites and by participating in activities that are popular to contemporary youths (selfies) (Why Pope Francis is the Person of the Year); to name a few. These accomplishments demonstrate leadership in te rms of exhibiting characteristics and traits of a true leader (humility, influencer, collaborative, and takes innate interests on the well-being of those he leads). This is consistent with the traits mentioned by Mandela, when he asserted that â€Å"the capacity to integrate, motivate, and mobilize others to bring a common

Monday, August 26, 2019

Homo floresiensis or the Hobbit or Flores man, is it a homo erectus Research Paper

Homo floresiensis or the Hobbit or Flores man, is it a homo erectus - Research Paper Example These remains have increased historic researchers’ curiosity of intense research in order to determine if they represent a distinct species from modern humans. This scientific controversy progress has closely been followed by different forms of media. The most remarkable feature of this hominid is that it has a small brain and body. However, it could have survived until the recent past, about 12,000 years ago. Together with the skeletons were archeological horizon’s stone tools. Critics of this species claim that they are HomoSapiens going by their physiology and anatomy. The other hypothesis is that these individuals did have functional thyroids during their birth, and this resulted in myxoedematous, a kind of endemic cretinism. To prove the hypothesis wrong or right, researchers are in the process of finding preserved mitochondrial DNA, so that they can compare it with samples from the same specimens from fossilized HomoSapiens and Homo. The possibility of the similarity between Homo floresiensis and Homo sapiens is a study that needs further research. Though many scientists and scientific groups have shown mush interest on this subject, they still have not yet found the truth. However, the already found research findings indicate that this species is different from today’s human in several ways like body and brain size. Furthermore, its time of existence is also questionable. Mitochondrial DNA, which is still in the process of being undertaken, might be the only hope that will answer the many questions that scientists want to answer.

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Develope a research plan for this topic = Risk factors for Proposal

Develope a plan for this topic = Risk factors for Helicobacter pylori Infections among residents in a Native American settlement - Research Proposal Example Assumptions, Limitations and Delimitations: As the rate of H. pylori seropositivity augments with age, 78% of the residents around 14 years displayed seropositivity. Total follow up of the entire population is not possible so the population is segmented and regular follow up will be maintained in the current research. Summary: Regular follow up is essential to demonstrate the exact age of acquiring H. pylori infection. Remarkable difference is observed in the seroprevalence of various ethnic communities, therefore population is segregated right from the beginning of the study. Reports established that the prevalence of infection is high in children so the study is conducted for the children below 20 years. Future Implications: The results procured from the study will be statistically examined and will be compared with the present findings. This is definitely going to be a step to alleviate iron deficiency anaemia and prevention of H. pylori infection at earlier age. Contribution to social change: The study will help in the prevention of H. pylori infection at the earlier age. It is an effort to locate the prevalence of H. pylori infection in a particular community, in a particular age, onset of infection and its correlation with the iron deficiency anaemia. Thus it is a contribution towards the social upliftment of the Alaska communities. Parkinson, A.J., Benjamin, D. G., Bulkow, L., Wainwright, R.B., Swaminathan, B., Khanna, B., Peterson, K.M., Fitzgerald, M. A. (2000). High prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Alaska Native Population and Association with Low Serum Ferritin Levels in Young Adults. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 7(6),

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Political Philosophy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Political Philosophy - Essay Example Many people have questioned whether the government, with all its laws and regulations, is justified to rule the people. What right does the government have to demand that its people obey? Why should an individual obey the state in the first place? These are just a few of philosophical queries being asked. Nonetheless, a majority of the responds stress the need for an orderly process and protection as the justification for obedience to the government. Some have highlighted the need to promote cultural and spiritual aspects of the populace while others stress the need for economic well-being, which stands as the foundation for all values. This text looks into the answers given by John Stuart Mill, Karl Marx, and Friedrich Engels. Mill concurs with Lock in vying for representational democracy; however, he is against the idea of natural rights (Pojman, 502). The struggle between Authority and Liberty has been ongoing for a long time particularly in the history of countries like Rome, Gre ece, and England. However, during such times, the contest was between the government and certain classes of subjects. Liberty meant protection against the dictatorship of political rulers. The rulers at the time obtained authority from conquest or inheritance. Therefore, most of them never held leadership at the pleasure of the citizens. Although their power was deemed necessary, it was regarded as highly dangerous. Some of the leaders would use authority as a strategic weapon against their adversaries or subjects (Pojman, 502). However, it reached a time when men stopped to believe that their governors should be independent. They deemed it fit that their leaders should be delegates or tenants revocable at their gratification. That way, they would have total security that the government authority will never take them for granted. Others still thought that there was a need to let their give responsibility to their leaders, where they can be removed if need be. This idea was common am ongst the last liberal European generation (Pojman, 504). However, in time, a democratic republic came into place as an elective and responsible government was ushered into place. The will of the people meant the will of the many. According to Mill, the only instance where power can be exercised in the right manner is when used on any civilized member of a community to prevent harm against others, against his will (Pojman, 505). However, this is not about minors in the society. Freedom should only be extended towards the pursuance of our own good in a specific way, so long as no other person gets hurt. A person who hurts others should be punished by law, in a situation where legal penalties cannot be safely applied. A person can also be compelled to do acts that would be of benefit to the rest of the society, for instance, to give evidence in a court of law, saving another human being’s life, or protect the defenseless. The society, in this case, will hold responsible the ind ividual should he fail to do the act. In this regard, a person can cause harm to others, not necessarily by doing wrong, but by refusing to do the right thing. Mill further argues that people should not have the right to coerce the government into doing something; such power in itself is illicit (Pojman, 507). It is even more noxious for a government to exert power as a result of public opinion. Basically, Mill promotes the idea that the principle of liberty is only justifiable by utilitarian reflections. 3. The Communist Answer according to Carl Max Karl Max played an instrumental role in the dawn of the Marxist movement. According to him, all cultural values, including all the laws and ideal, of a society are at all times the reflection of the rulers. History has always painted a picture of struggles between the classes (Pojman, 510). During the past periods of history, there has been an intricate arrangement of the society into different social orders, a diverse

Friday, August 23, 2019

Homosexuality in Britain Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Homosexuality in Britain - Essay Example According to the article, the orientation for preference to same sex relations remain covert as it was categorized as criminal in nature to expose homosexual acts, in private or in public, even by consenting adults prior to 1969. There was no organization in England promoting for any homosexual reform that it waited for American ideals of homosexual liberation to emerge. Despite the British laws prevailing to be predominantly homophobic, homosexual content in English literature still remained sporadic, depending on the creativity and restraint of the writer. British literature had patiently waited for fourteen years since the Wolfenden Report of 1953 recommending that homosexual behavior between consenting adults in private no longer be criminalized in England, before they can freely express homosexual content in their literary works. It is my personal contention that the issue of homosexuality remains to be controversial in other parts of the world until contemporary times. What American culture had promoted in terms of liberalizing homosexual behavior was readily accepted in other Western civilizations. Some Eastern culture remains to be still conservative in openly accepting homosexual acts given the cultural values and beliefs, especially pinning on religious orientations. In literature, however, I support freedom of creative expression including the writing of homosexual content conforming to ethical frameworks. Wanton disregard for the readers’ morals would render their literary work utterly improvident. I share Jeremy Bentham’s belief that in writing about homosexuality, one must weigh â€Å"the pleasure of consensual homosexual relations against the pain or harm it causes the general public†¦ by causing no harm to others, homosexuality is justified by the pleasures of those who practice it.† (glbtq, 2002,

Is sleep deprivation associated with poor eating habits (overnutrition Research Paper

Is sleep deprivation associated with poor eating habits (overnutrition and ultimately becoming overweight) - Research Paper Example They argue that the problem occur because of personal choices on food and physical activities. If one consumes more than what is required the excess is stored and if there is no physical activity to consume what was stored then it will remain permanently in the body (Berreby, 2014). At school, students mostly prefer fast foods that are highly rich in fat and also they lack the appliances and the ingredients they need to prepare their own foods that are more appropriate for their health. At college level, they often reduce their sport activities despite maintaining their previous eating behavior. In addition, stress imposed by the curriculum, consumption of alcohol and delayed nighttime snacking are the major contributing factors to weight gain and furthermore sleeplessness. According to many experts, sleep deprivation will result to an increase in hunger hormones and that will finally result to a feeling of fullness (Peric & Nimwegen,

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Good V. Evil Essay Example for Free

Good V. Evil Essay The Strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde represents a conflict between good and evil. One character (Jekyll) is determined to keep his impulses in check and ignore temptations, while the other character, Mr. Hyde, is brazen and submits to any temptation or impulse. The four main characters in the story are all men of similar social class who are capable of keeping their impulses in check and denying the temptations of evil. In the case of Dr. Jekyll however, Dr. Jekyll is not able to say no to the evils and uses an alternate identity to unleash the monster from within. The story of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde can be easily related to the reader, as everybody knows the temptations of evil and the pleasures that both good and evil can bring somebody. Dr. Jekyll experiences strong tendencies of both good and bad. Unlike most men of Dr. Jekylls age and geography, Jekyll cannot keep himself from indulging in the pleasures that the evil side can provide. Jekylls trip into extreme evil (Mr. Hyde) is partially due to the fact that he has lived such an acceptable and exemplinary life in the past and he holds himself to a higher standard than some of his collegues. Robert Louise Stevenson describes Dr, Jekyll as a man who his friends were those of his own blood or those whom he had known the longest. (Ch1. P2) Dr. Jekyll seems to only trust those whom he was most comfortable with and does not let people that he barely knows too close into his life. It is possible that Dr. Jekyll did not reach out and become friends with too many people because he was aware of the evilness that was lurking inside of him. The attitude of Dr. Jekyll is described in the opening paragraph as at friendly meetings and when the wine was to his taste, something eminently human beaconed from his eyeStevenson. Could it be possible that Dr. Jekyll was aware of the evil secret life that he hides from the real world? It appears that there was something a little strange about Dr. Jeykll that others couldnt exactly figure out yet. Mr. Enfield is asked by Mr. Utterson to describe Dr. Jekyll so Enfield describes Jekyll as somebody who I never saw a man I so disliked. he gives a strong feeling of deformity, although I couldnt specify the pointStevenson,pg. 1680. The bad side of Dr. Jekyll is evident just by his demeanor although it is nothing compared to the evilness of Mr. Hyde. Mr. Hyde represents the dark side of Dr, Jekyll. Hyde only comes to life when Jekyll takes the drug that brings him out. The drug that unleashes Hyde at first makes Jekyll feel terribly sick but shortly after, Jekyll feels incredible and almost as though he is not human. Jekylls evil fantasies and impulses become a reality after he takes the drug. The drug makes Jekyll feel like he is a whole different person and that allows him to do whatever evil things he wants to do. The good in Jekyll is only returned if he takes an antidote. Just like many other people there is a constant struggle between good and evil of our everyday lives. People who struggle with drugs or alcohol or any other worldly temptations live a similar life to the one that Dr. Jekyll lives. Life is not easy for anybody and sometimes people need to escape their reality for a little while by taking a drug just like Jekyll does. Stevenson does well in creating a parallel between good and evil that people can relate to in their everyday lives. Stevensons story is very similar to a modern film called Limitless staring Bradley Cooper. In Limitless, Cooper, a young man struggling to pay his bills, tries a new drug that gives him extreme brain power which he uses to achieve great wealth and success. The success is only attainable with the use of the drug and without the drug, Cooper becomes sick and very weak, similar to what happens with Dr. Jekyll when he is without the drug. Just like Jekyll, Coopers health starts to dwindle as the supply of drugs becomes smaller and smaller. Stevenson is perhaps trying to teach the reader a valuable lesson in saying no to the temptations of evil. These temptations can often be difficult to ignore. Stevnson seems to suggest the Dr. Jekyll is the victim of a split personality disorder which was a new concept during the Victorian age. The only difference between Dr. Jekylls condition and a split personality disorder is that in the case of somebody suffering from split personalities, the person is aware of the other personality and can bring this person out willfully. Mr. Hyde however, cannot control Jekylls personalty and is not even aware of him. Dr. Jekyll is aware of Mr, Hyde though and understands the evilness that Mr. Hyde causes when Jekyll loses control and takes the drug too much. Mr. Hyde begins to take complete control Stvenson might be suggesting that even if a person is good, once they give into their evil tendencies there is no trunigng back. When Dr. Jekyll starts to flirt with hs bad sidem he begins to lose control of his personality and he eventually loses his friends and good nature. Stevnson displays the power of good will and the consewuences of even the first approach at evil. Once somebody is indulged into a bad habit, they can let their abad habit take control of their lives and it becomes extremely difficult to come back from the evilness once it has become a major part of your life. Dr. Jekyll says, with every day and from both sides of my intelligence, the moral and intellectual, I thus drew steadily nearer to the truthby whose partial discovery I have been doomed to such a dreadful shipwreck: that man is not truly one, but truly two Stevenson. Jekyll is describing the affects of his choices and how he is now truning into his bad side for good because that is the person that he has become. Stevensons main goal in writing this story is to create horror and excitement for the reader. He leaves the reader to draw their own conclusions about the message in the story but it is clear to me that this story is about human nature and the batte of good vs. evil. Once a human gives into their temtations they are more likely to indulge in these evil deeds again and again. Dr. Jekyll tried a drug that made him into a different person and he enjoye giving into his evil tendencies. Eventually these evil tendencies took control over Jekyll and he became too evil to return to the good natured Dr. the his colleagues knew.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

The Definition of a Trademark and Goodwill

The Definition of a Trademark and Goodwill INTRODUCTION Definition of trademark Any company has the right to take legal action if enough evidence is provided to the court. The company that feels infringed can take legal action supported by the principles of intellectual property rights. Company X has the rights to take legal action against company Y on the basis of fundamental principles under intellectual property rights. Company X is a manufacturer of cool soft for men under the trade mark as cool soft as the first company to register under such a distinctive name. Company Y also starts to manufacture real soft for men under the trade mark real soft after company X is already trading. Trade mark by Yu,(2007), is defined as any word, name, symbol or device or any combination thereof used by a person to identify and distinguish his or her goods from these manufactured or sold by others and to indicate the source of the goods. In the case of laximikant Patel vs Chetan bhat shah, it was held that the trade the definition of trade mark is very wide and means a mark capable of being represented graphically and which is capable of distinguish the goods and services of one person from those of others. In this case company X has come up with a distinctive name as it trademark as the source to all consumers or as a source of such a product. Company X coming up with a name trade mark that is totally different from any other company. Furthermore, what is necessary is the connection between the mark used in relation to the goods and the person claiming a right to use the same. Recently in the case of Jaleel Associates vs Hotel sugar, it was held that if a name used in relation to goods or services for the purpose of indicating a course of trade between goods and services and some person having the right to use such name whether with or without any indication of the identity of that person such name is a trademark. In this case, company X under the trademark cool soft is able to portray a certain that of trade and under such a trade, people are able to identify the trade or goods or services that are being provided and this becomes a trademark. On the other hand company Y does not come up with something different but follow in the same trade as company X which has already have the trade mark because of being able to make easy identification to customers on goods or services being provided in that particular market. In addition, company X has also registered the trade mark cool soft. Under the Trade Mark Act section 14(1) provides that a mark will only be registered as a trade mark if it contains or consists of a word or words having no direct reference to the character or quality of the goods and not geographical name or surname. In this case company Y’s trade mark real soft has a direct reference to the trade mark of company X which is prohibited under the Trade Mark Act. Goodwill The goodwill of company X is portrayed were the cool soft has been marketed over a period of time, whilst company Y has just started manufacturing. Goodwill is ability to attract customers and potential customers to do business with the owner. Company X has developed goodwill for a long period of time. Customers have been buying their products, and this has made the company to amass for revenue, maintaining a bigger market share and brand loyalty. Unlike company Y who are just new to the business and has not been tested in the industry for a longer period. In the case of Hotel Capriani vs Cipriani (Grosvenor street) 2010, it was held that the claimant succeeded in both action sued which were trademark infringement and passing off. Company X has the right to take such legal actions. The aspect of marketing the product for a long period of time has made company X to be an established company, trusted by many people and therefore the sufficient enough to take legal action. In the case of Jules Rimet vs the football Association, it was held that after considering the claimant’s evidence which included references to the mascot in the press from time to time concluded that there was sufficient residual goodwill for action of passing of. Apart from this, in the case of Reckitt and Coleman products Ltd vs Borden Inc, it was held that the existence of the claimant’s extensive and exclusive goodwill built over the years, a misrepresentation as to the goods or services offered by the defendant and damage to the claimant’s goodwill as a result of the defendant’s misrepresentation amounted to passing off. Company X has built a reputation over the years and company Y by producing a product similar has somehow destabilize the sales, customers and market share of company X which in the case above amounts to passing off. Passing off is an attempt by one trader taking advantage of the goodwill developed by another to the detriment of the trader. Company X has marketed over a period of time and company Y has just started manufacturing similar products like the ones that company X is manufacturing. In a similar case Erven Warnink Bv vs J Townsend Sons Ltd (1979), it was held that not only damage due to lost sales but damage to reputation by being associated with inferior product amounted to passing off. Townsend was liable for passing off their goods as those of Warnink and the court applied the test for passing off which includes and any situation where misrepresentation is likely to injure the claimant’s goodwill. There was no trademark infringement but passing off. In order for one to claim passing off, there must be elements of the following aspects: There must be a goodwill or reputation attached to the goods or services of the claimant. In this case company X has marketed its product over a long period of time than company Y which has just started marketing same products. By marketing for a long period of time, company X has built a good relationship with customers. Sales have dropped due to company Y producing the same kind of product thus driving away customers to buy the other product and reducing the profitability of company X. This gives the right for company X to take legal action against company Y as this amounts to passing off. In the case of Buckley LJ H P Bulmer Limited vs Bollinger SA (1978), the court held that a man who engages in commercial activities may acquire a valuable reputation in respects of the goods in which he deals, or of the services which he performs or his business as an entity. The law regards such a reputation as an incorporeal piece of property, the integrity of which the owner is entitled to protect. So in this case, company X has built a reputation by marketing for a long period of time and by such the company’s image, property and reputation are entitled to be protected. For passing of to be established there must be an element of misrepresentation. This element of misrepresentation is shown by company Y when manufacturing the products with similar packaging in white, dark blue and green colors as the ones that company X has manufactured for a long period of time. Misrepresentation is a false description made consciously or unconsciously through the use of a mark, trade name or get-up (brand name, trade description, individual features of labelling or packaging) with which the goods of the claimant are associated and which is likely to mislead the sensible members of the public. 3.0 Misrepresentation In the case of Arsenal Football Club Plc vs Reed (2001), it was held that the disclaimer was sufficient enough to prevent misrepresentation which is a necessary ingredient for passing off. The customers had not been deceived into buying and there was no real likelihood of confusion. But in this case company Y has labelled its product similarly to the ones of company X thus creating confusion as customers would not be able to differentiate from the original product hence deceiving customers. The deception as a result of a misrepresentation is an essential ingredient for a claim in passing off. In the case of BP Amoco Plc vs John Kelly Ltd (2005), it was held that deception or its likelihood lies at the heart of the tort of passing off. If the customer can see sufficiently clearly when he gets close to the station that the product sold is not that of Bp, he does not buy the petrol under the mistaken impression that he is getting Bp petrol. But in this case it is hard for a customer to clearly see the difference as the packaging of company X is white, dark blue and green, similarly to the one that company Y has started manufacturing. The packaging looks the same and this causes deception as company Y would be selling its product to customers who might buy on the essence that the product they are buying is for company X which has been manufacturing the product for a long period of time. By doing so company Y is deceiving customers into buying a product which is not the actual known product in the market which is manufactured by company X. This still amounts to passing off as company X is entitled to take legal actions under such circumstances. In the case of Combee international v Scholl (1975), the plaintiff manufactured insoles called odox heaters which contained activated charcoal. The defendant who was a well-known manufacturer of footwear also produced odox heaters. These were packaged in the same way. It was held that an injunction was granted on the basis that there was misrepresentation as the origin of the defendant’s product which was inferior. So in the same way company X can take legal actions against company Y because company Y is packing in the same way as the product of company Y is sold. Furthermore in the case of Wilkinson Sword Ltd vs Cripps Lee, the court held that the plaintiff had indeed have a reasonable cause of action. Meaning company X has the right to take legal actions. Damage to good wil Damage to good will would be a loss of reputation or control over reputation, exposure to litigation or erosion of the mark. Company Y has just started making similar goods as the ones made by company X. This has resulted in some of the customers buying from company Y thus reducing the gross profit for company X because the two companies share customers. In the case of Annabel’s (Berkley Square Ltd vs G Shock (Annabel’s Escort Agency), 1972, it was held that there a was sufficient association between what the public would consider the field of activity in which both business conducted

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Meeting the Needs of a Dying Patient

Meeting the Needs of a Dying Patient Title: caring for a patient who is dying is an experience most nurses will face at some stage of their career. With reference to patients you have cared for, describe how you were able to meet the needs of dying patients. As a certainty, all of us will have to face death at some stage. Some of us are fortunate enough to be able to do so with caring, supportive and empathetic people around us. (Seale C et al. 2003). Nurses must be able to discharge their professional responsibilities in this area with this comment in mind. In this short essay we will explore how a nurse can empathise, understand and assist the patient in dealing with the various issues that arise. We will discuss these issues in relation to one specific case, Mrs G. The case was complex, but, in essence, it involved a lady who had just been given a terminal diagnosis and entered into a phase of complete denial and overt avoidance behaviour. She would change the subject when talking about her health and keep herself almost manically occupied with trivial tasks so as not to have to consider the reality of the situation. Dobrantz (2005) points to the fact that it is well recognised that some patients deal with life crises simply by ignoring them, other will use mechanisms of varying degrees of cognitive distortion (CDs), which may range from undue optimism to complete denial (as Mrs.G did). The main nursing dilemma here is should the nurse actively confront Mrs.G’s denial and allow her to see the reality of the situation or is it perhaps kinder to allow her to continue in her state of overt denial. (Dean A. 2002) On first analysis, one might take the view that, given the fact that Mrs.G had only a short time left to live, it might be a kindness to allow her not to confront the psychological pain of anticipating her imminent death. Against this argument is the concept of â€Å"a good death†. (Cuttini et al. 2003). Many authorities (viz. Roy C 1991) that in order for a patient to have â€Å"a good death†, they need time to accept the inevitable and to mentally come to terms with it, make what preparations they need (financial, practical, spiritual, personal) so that they can approach it in a calm and considered way. Clearly this cannot be achieved if they are actively entering into a degree of denial about the situation. (The A-M et al. 2000) Demonstrate ability to apply relevant nursing knowledge to individualised patient care The immediate therapeutic problem to be confronted by the healthcare professionals involved is to decide the degree of collusion with the denial that can be ethically employed. (Sugarman J Sulmasy 2001). To a degree, this is a matter of personal and clinical judgement. Most experienced healthcare professionals would suggest that truth is generally the best policy, the degree of truth however, can be a matter of negotiation. (Parker and Lawton 2003). The important concept to embrace in this type of situation is that of individualised patient care. In order to come to a considered decision, the nurse must carefully consider all the elements of the patient’s coping mechanisms and assume a holistic approach to the matter. We note that the concept of holistic care can best be visualised with the understanding that the concept of â€Å"Health† is based on a translation of the Anglo Saxon word for â€Å"wholeness† (or holism). The key to this approach is that it recognises that health has both spiritual and psycho-social elements as well as the overtly physical. (Wright et al 2001) The main elements of managing Mrs.G ‘s case seem to revolve around the ethical concept of autonomy (Coulter A. 2002). One has to make a professional decision whether or not Mrs.G is considered to have the right to make completely autonomous decisions for herself. In many clinical situations (such as consent, for example), the issue of autonomy is virtually inviolate. There are other situations, and we suggest that this is one, where other ethical principles may take precedence. The Principle of Beneficence suggests that the healthcare professional should effectively do â€Å"goodness† or more accurately in these circumstances, as doing what is the best for the patient. (Dordrecht et al. 1983 Demonstrate ability to make own judgment and decisions based upon the evaluation of the nursing situation. There are a number of nursing models which could be used to construct a response to this situation. They all assimilate the general nursing scheme of assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation. (Fawcett J 2005) The Roper, Logan, Tierney model (2000) would be appropriate to assess the activities of daily living in a problem solving manner, but this process is primarily of use in those situations that are physically orientated and therefore the psychological denial element is not clearly addressed by this model. The Roy Adaptation model (Roy 1991) is certainly more useful in explaining the adaptive processes that the patient experiences as they come to terms with the â€Å"illness role†. Mrs.G however, did not adapt and, by adopting a strategy of denial, was able to maintain her belief of â€Å"wellness† almost until the end, when her illness eventually forced her into accepting it. In real terms, Mrs.G did not adapt at all. The Johnson Behavioural System model (Wilkerson et al 1996) suits our purposes better as it clearly describes the processes of illness denial, but it doses not combine it with the adaptive processes that eventually overtook Mrs.G at the end of her life. Wadenstein (et al. 2003) sums up this type of situation with the conclusion that when there is multifactorial aetiology in a given situation there is seldom one nursing model that will encompass all eventualities. Conclusions Mrs.J.’s emotional pain of trying to cope with imminent death was clearly too great for her to assimilate. This must be understood by her medical attendants if she is to have a â€Å"good death† (Marks-Moran Rose 1996) In order to try to provide Mrs.G with the best care that she could have, the clinical staff tried to help Mrs.G towards the realisation that she should confront her own imminent mortality. Unfortunately for all concerned, this proved to be impossible and Mrs.G died about two weeks after her admission, only openly acknowledging the imminence of her death when she became too weak to lift a cup of tea to her mouth on the day before she died. Arguably, when this acceptance came home to her, the nursing staff were actually able to help and support her more than Mrs.G had allowed them to in the preceding two weeks. (Yura H et al. 1998 References Coulter A. 2002 The autonomous patient. London: The Nuffield Trust, 2002. Cuttini, Veronica Casotto, Rodolfo Saracci, and Marcello Orzalesi 2003 In search of a good death: Health professionals beliefs may undermine effective pain relief for dying patients BMJ 2003 327 : 222. Dean A. 2002 Talking to dying patients of their hopes and needs. Nurs Times. 2002 Oct 22-28 ; 98( 43) : 34-5. Dobratz, M 2005 Gently Into the Light: A Call for the Critical Analysis of End-of-Life Outcomes. Advances in Nursing Science. Nursing Care Outcomes. 28(2):116-126, April/June 2005 Dordrecht: Kluwer. Beauchamp, T. and Childress, J., 1983, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 2nd edition., New York: Oxford University Press. 1983 Fawcett J 2005 Contemporary Nursing Knowledge: Analysis and Evaluation of Nursing Models and Theories, 2nd Edition Boston: Davis Co 2005 ISBN : 0-8036-1194-3 Marks-Moran Rose 1996 Reconstructing Nursing: Beyond Art and Science London: Balliere Tindall October, 1996 Parker and Lawton 2003 Psychological contribution to the understanding of adverse events in health care Qual. Saf. Health Care, Dec 2003; 12: 453 457. Roper, Logan and Tierney (2000) Activities of Living model London : Churchill Livingstone 2000 ISBN 0443063737 Roy C 1991 An Adaption model (Notes on the Nursing theories Vol 3) OUP: London 1991 Seale C, van der Geest S. 2003 Good and bad death: introduction. Soc Sci Med. 2003. 58 (5) : 883–885. Sugarman J Sulmasy 2001 Methods in Medical Ethics Georgetown Univeristy Press 2001 ISBN: 0878408738 The A-M, Hak T, Koeter G, Wal Gvd. 2000 Collusion in doctor-patient communication about imminent death: an ethnographic study. BMJ 2000 ; 321 : 1376-1381 Wadensten Carlsson 2003 Nursing theory views on how to support the process of ageing J. of Advanced Nursing Volume 42, Number 2, April 2003, pp. 118-124(7) Wilkerson, S. A., Loveland-Cherry, C. J. (1996). Johnson’s behavioral system model. In J. J. Fitzpatrick A.L. Whall (Eds.), Conceptual models of nursing: Analysis and application (3rd ed., pp. 89-109). Stamford, CT: Appleton Lange. 1996 Wright S, Sayre-Adams J. 2001 Sacred space: right relationship in health and healing: not just what we do but who we are. In: Rankin-Box D, ed. The nurses handbook of complementary therapies. 2nd ed. London: Baillià ¨re Tindall, 2001. Yura H, Walsh M. 1998 The nursing process. Assessing, planning, implementing, evaluating. 5th edition. Norwalk, CT: Appleton Lange, 1998. =============================================================== 9.5.06 PDG Word count

Monday, August 19, 2019

Dress Codes :: essays research papers

It is in the middle of summer and very hot and humid. You are in complete uniform, wearing the long wool pants with the shirt, tie and sweater. Your whole body is uncontrollably sweating. Instead of paying attention in class, you wipe yourself down every second.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Uniforms are uncomfortable, cause distractions and are expensive. They serve no purpose in getting the proper knowledge that one is in school to earn. One that is not comfortable, may not concentrate in class. He/she will move around their seat impatiently trying to get comfortable. Uniforms always cause problems in the summer and winter. The girls complain about wearing short dresses in the winter, arguing that it gets too cold to have their bare legs showing outside in the freezing weather conditions. The boys complain about wearing the hot long pants in the summer.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  I attended a school that required a uniform. I wear boxers longer than the girls’ skirts. Although my values were strongly set on education, my mind wondered, trying to get a glimpse of a girl bending over. Some girls deny it, they wear their dresses too short. This causes a distraction. The guys will not pay attention in class, instead they will stare at the short dresses. This causes the boys to do work at a lower level. The schools should make a rule on the skirt lengths and enforce it with severe punishments such as detentions, suspensions, and expulsions. This rule should make the lengths below the knees.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Most uniforms are very expensive. The whole uniform may cost about $250.00. This is expensive for a normal family. Since some schools require uniforms, the family is forced to buy the uniform. This puts the family back financially. This might force the family to live on bread and water due to the fact that they have spent all the food money on ties dressshoes and dress pants.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  How can uniforms change the way people act? They can not. No matter what the opposing argument may be, it can not be logically correct.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Computers :: essays research papers

When you mention the word "technology," most people think about computers. Virtually every facet of our lives has some computerized component. The appliances in our homes have microprocessors built into them, as do our televisions. Even our cars have a computer. But the computer that everyone thinks of first is typically the personal computer, or PC. A PC is a general purpose tool built around a microprocessor. It has lots of different parts -- memory, a hard disk, a modem, etc. -- that work together. "General purpose" means that you can do many different things with a PC. You can use it to type documents, send e-mail, browse the Web and play games. In this article, we will talk about PCs in the general sense and all the different parts that go into them. You will learn about the various components and how they work together in a basic operating session. You'll also find out what the future may hold for these machines. Let's take a look at the main components of a typical desktop computer. * Central processing unit (CPU) - The microprocessor "brain" of the computer system is called the central processing unit. Everything that a computer does is overseen by the CPU. * Memory - This is very fast storage used to hold data. It has to be fast because it connects directly to the microprocessor. There are several specific types of memory in a computer: o Random-access memory (RAM) - Used to temporarily store information that the computer is currently working with o Read-only memory (ROM) - A permanent type of memory storage used by the computer for important data that does not change o Basic input/output system (BIOS) - A type of ROM that is used by the computer to establish basic communication when the computer is first turned on o Caching - The storing of frequently used data in extremely fast RAM that connects directly to the CPU o Virtual memory - Space on a hard disk used to temporarily store data and swap it in and out of RAM as needed # otherboard - This is the main circuit board that all of the other internal components connect to. The CPU and memory are usually on the motherboard. Other systems may be found directly on the motherboard or connected to it through a secondary connection. For example, a sound card can be built into the motherboard or connected through PCI.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Recollecting One’s Childhood Memory

Childhood is the most innocent time of someone's life. With the passage of time, childhood fades into adolescence and then adulthood, yet the sweet memories of childhood linger on. My childhood recollections are those of a carefree life, nurtured with love and concern. I was the baby of the family with only one older sister. I don't remember much from when I was little, but I have a few memories that have stuck with me throughout the years. My family lived in a one story, barn red house on 9th street.Two houses down the road lived my best friends' grandmother who babysat her almost every weekend; two houses up the road lived my sisters' best friend, her two younger brothers, and across the street lived our other two friends. All of us would hangout every afternoon before dinner. In my mind nothing could go wrong, we were children who went to school, played and slept. I was in preschool at the time and one day I went to school and found out that my teachers' cat had kittens and if my parents said it was okay, I was able to take one home.That night I asked my mother if I could bring one home, and she said when they were big enough, I could pick one out and bring it home. My favorite kitten was mostly gray with some calico spots, and I was able to take her home. I named her Call. I was so excited that I had my very own cat! I couldn't wait to see her grow up. When I first took her home she was an inside cat only, but when she got bigger she was aloud outside. One day after school my sister and I went across the street to play with our friends and Call allowed, she loved to follow me around and play with me.While she was crossing the road, a car came and Instead of slowing down, they sped up and hit my cat In front of my sister and me. I was heartbroken and started bawling. My parents heard our screams and ran outside and across the street. My father picked me up and carried me home covering my eyes as we passed Call. When my sister and I calmed down my dad went an d got Call, dug a hole next to our rose bush, and burled her. From that day on I never understood how people could be cruel to animals.I love all animals and my heart aches when I see a dead or hurt animal on the side of the road. This memory Is one of the few I remember from my childhood, I believe that this memory I have makes me love animals with my whole heart and subconsciously makes me treat my animals Like they are my children. My love for animals Is greater than the love I have for myself. Recollecting One's Childhood Memory By Camaraderie's spots, and I was able to take her home. I named her Call.I was so excited that I had school my sister and I went across the street to play with our friends and Call the road, a car came and instead of slowing down, they sped up and hit my cat in carried me home covering my eyes as we passed Call. When my sister and I calmed down my dad went and got Call, dug a hole next to our rose bush, and buried her. Road. This memory is one of the fe w I remember from my childhood, I believe that makes me treat my animals like they are my children. My love for animals is greater.

Premature Specialization in Medicine

A medical doctor in today†s world is educated and trained in a traditional manner that seeks to insure the well being of his or her patients. Practicing medicine requires a strong science background and rigorous training; it is in the interest of clients and medical boards across the world to assure this. Thus, education in the science field is extremely important, even at the undergraduate level. Being a doctor is not just a job, nor is it solely a career. The medical profession is saturated with risk, for both the patient as well as the doctor. Doctors need early specialization in their education in order to acquire the skills necessary to handle delicate situations that occur on a daily basis. Malpractice must come to an end. The education that a doctor receives is a tool that he or she will use his or her whole life, (unlike a person who majored in something contrary to what their field of work is). A doctor†s experience is a vital instrument. Medical skill is a demand for certain practicing procedures and should be taken seriously. Knowing the legal system requires a doctor to have a good amount of experience can ease the concerns of family and loved ones, and also gives confidence to a doctor that he or she can do his or her work correctly. In order for doctors to get the best experience and education needed, training must take place early on in education. An abundance of science courses in college is a good start to prepare for medical school. Even though medical schools might cover the material that is offered in undergraduate biology and chemistry courses, repeat exposure to the material can only be beneficial to the student. The more experience that a student has in science and related subjects ultimately helps the future doctor in the long run. To ensure the level of maturity of a doctor, it is necessary to educate them on a broad level. According to Thomas, English, History, the literature of at least two foreign languages, and philosophy should come near the top of the list, just below Classics, as basic requirements, and applicants for medical school should be told that their grades in these courses will more than anything. (Thomas 115) Educating premed students in these courses is important, but science is the most significant part in an undergraduate program. It requires thought and practice as well as research, which are all fundamental keys to being a doctor. If a MD were certified with the least amount of experience allowed in the science field as possible, malpractice could be expected. On the other hand knowing two foreign languages is not vital to ones life. In fact, if a patient speaks another language translators can be brought in to fit certain needs. Doctors that focus on science and health are achieving what the profession requires. Understanding science to its full capacity ought to be the goal for premeds and medical students. To ensure the well fare of a patient, over achievement of science courses is necessary. Looking at the medical educational setup that is present in today†s Universities, premed students work hard at science and put forth the effort to make these classes their number one priority. According to Thomas, † If there are any courses in the humanities that can be taken without risk to class standing they will line up for these, but they will not get in to anything tough except for science.† (Thomas 114) Comprehending science can be hard and exhilarating, students should space out these courses while maintaining a level of understanding of other fields, but it is serious to make focus on science. Any student in the undergraduate level maintaining a good grade point average while taking 300, and 400 level science classes is bound for success. The risk factor for a doctor practicing medicine that has thoroughly been educated and has completed all necessary science classes, whether it be premature specialization or courses in medical school, will ultimately be a safe doctor and will create a more secure atmosphere in the field.

Friday, August 16, 2019

How to Stop Worrying and Start Living

Introduction How do you deal with your worries? Do you have any ways to solve your problems? We are not taught them neither at school nor on the job. We are supposed to find and figure out them by ourselves. Today I’d like to talk about: first, how serious damages we get from worries. Second, the solution for those of you who suffer from worries, and finally, how much benefit you can get with my suggestion. Need step As you know, worries mean nothing other than harms. For example, worries cause stresses and diseases. It is said if we could remove worries, 70% of sick people would completely recover from the disease.And the most significant factor of suicides is also â€Å"worries†. Human relationships, work environments†¦, there are lots of worries. I think everybody lives with certain worries more or less. Satisfaction Step But don’t worry. I have a solution. I have a book called â€Å"How to Stop Worrying and Start Living†, by Dale Carnegie. Althoug h it was written over 30 years ago, what he said hasn’t been out of date at all. Over 80% of reviewers rate this book on 5 star on Amazon. com. Visualization Step I can assure you that you’d enjoy the feeling that your worries are gone away as you read through this book.And it is also famous as a problem solving handbook for business persons. From only one book, you can learn not only the ways to deal with your worries, but also the useful methods of problem-solving. How amazing!! This is the reason why successful business persons around the world read this book continuously. Closing Now, I’d like to ask you, would you like to live a life with worries or without worries? If you choose a worry-free life, what are you waiting for? From the moment you start reading â€Å"How to Stop Worrying and Start Living†, you can â€Å"stop worrying and start living†. Thank you.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

History and development of Bengali journalism Essay

Bengal, especially Calcutta (presently Kolkata) was the cradle of journalism in India. The first newspaper of India Hickey’s Bengal Gazette was published in Kolkata in 1780. So were the first four non-English newspapers- in Bengali, Urdu, Hindi and Persian. Several language newspapers owe their birth to Kolkata in some form or the other; for example the Oriya types were manufactured in Serampore, a suburb of Kolkata. The year 1818 marks the beginning of Bengali journalism. Samachar Darpan was the first newspaper in Bengali language. It was published by Serampore Mission press on May 23, 1818. Started by missionaries Carey and Marshman, it began as a monthly, but soon converted into a weekly. It carried both Indian and foreign news. It became bilingual in 1829 carrying Bengali and English news in parallel columns. After surviving a number of crises, it closed down in 1852. Digdarshan was also published in 1818. In 1821 a remarkable Bengali journal Sambad Kaumadi was published under the patronage of Raja Ram Mohan Roy. But it did not survive for long. Sambad Pravakar was the first Bengali daily newspaper published in 1839, patronized by Iswar Chandra Gupta. It was followed by Tattobodhini, published by Akhya Kumar Dutta in 1843. The other Bengali journals during this time were Samachar Chandrika, Bangadoot, Sambad Pravakar, Vividhartha Sangrah (1851), Masik Patra (1854), and Som Prakash (1851). The first weekly within the territory of today’s Bangladesh, Rangpur Bartabaha, was published in 1847 from Rangpur and the first weekly from Dhaka, Dacca News, was published in 1856. The long lasting Dhaka Prakash was first published in 1861 and Dhaka Darpan in 1863. They early Bengali papers took up the cause of the oppressed workers in the ndigo plantation, and of the peasants. Notable among them were the Som Prakash, the Grambartha Prakashika and the Amrita Bazar Patrika (before it became an English weekly). They created problems for the government with their exposure of the exploitation of labour in plantations and on the fields, and violent denunciation of the European planters and the government. In the course of this campaign, a number of newspapers were started in villages and districts. The press and machinery used to print them were of the crudest type and the publisher and editor conducted the journals almost as family business. But despite the questionable quality of the ‘product’, it did achieve one remarkable feat: establish the credential of the newspaper as a powerful force. Bengali journalism also carried the message of Bengal renaissance. Most of them actively sought social and cultural reform. However, there were some, who opposed the reforms resulting in a social churning which is the hall mark of any renaissance. The Bengali press was a terror to the British administration and all the drastic press laws were particularly aimed against them. It had powerful editors and writers who reached out to the masses in the distant villages with their clarion call to fight against injustice, racial prejudice and maladministration. They were the earliest to demand self-Government and assail the Moderate leaders of the nationalist movement with timidity and lack of courage to demand what was the birthright of Indians. The Bengali Press suffered the most in the reprisals launched by the Government after the mutiny in 1857. Till the 80s of the nineteenth century Bengal was the hub of newspaper publication. A survey of the Indian Language Press by Sir George Campbell in 1876 showed that half of the total number of 38 newspapers was published from Kolkata. However, by end 19th century newspapers have started publishing from all across the country. End 19th century saw some remarkable newspapers coming out from Bengal. The Sulava Samachar of the Indian Reform Association was started in 1870 by Keshab Chandra Sen. It was a weekly, priced one pice per copy. It had a circulation of 3,500 copies and was the most popular weekly of the period. Another journal which was also popular was the Haishakar Patrika edited by Babu Kisari Mohan Ganguli. The first newspaper to espouse the cause of the working class, Bharat Sharmajibi, was started as a weekly at about this time. The first Bengali daily to adopt modern methods of production was the Basumati (1880) which was edited by Krishna Kamal Bhattacharya. Surendranath Banerejee published Bengalee. The editor of Bengalee faced contempt of court proceedings and imprisonment when it voiced public indignation in 1883 against a High Court Judge who ordered Hindu idols to be produced in court as evidence. The paper which became a daily in 1900 was the first language paper to subscribe to Reuter’s foreign news service. Through the Bande Mataram, another important newspaper of this period Aurobindo Ghosh proclaimed his philosophy and the â€Å"new Path† which meant passive resistance as an instrument of political action. An associate of the Bengalee was the Nayak (1908), published by Panch Cowrie Bannerjee. In 1922 came the Ananda Bazar Patrika, started by Mrinal Kanti Ghosh, Prafulla Kumar Sarkar and Suresh Chandra Majumdar. Together with its English counterpart, Hindustan Standard, it played a glorious role in the freedom movement. Another daily Jugantar, was started in 1937 by the management of the Amrita Bazar Patrika. After Gandhi took over the leadership of the national movement, the Bangalee and Nayak which were the organs of the Moderates, lost ground rapidly in spite of official support because of the tremendous pressure exerted by C. R. Das who was the undisputed Congress leader in Bengal. Post Independence Bengali papers suffered after the partition in 1947 because they lost a good slice of their readers in the new East Pakistan, which in 1971 became a new independent country: Bangladesh. Notable newspapers started in the first two decades after the independence included Loksevak (1948) and Jansevak owned by the Congress leader, Atulay Ghosh. Among the doyen of Bengali journalism, mention must be made of Chapala Kanta Bhattacharya, who was the editor of the Ananda Bazar Patrika and was president of the All-India Newspaper Editors Conference and Hemandra Prasad Ghosh, who started the Basumati in 1914. Hemendra Prasad Ghosh was a member of the Editors’ delegation which visited the war front in 1918. He had the distinction of being a pioneer in establishing an exclusive news services for his paper. Vivekananada Mukherjee was one of the greatest newspaper editors of Bengal. Under him Jugantar scaled great heights. The Bengali press today is the third largest numerical group after Hindi and English. There were 1662 newspapers in 1984 as against 1583 in 1983. Of them 52 are dailies and 433 weeklies. By 2007-8 the total number of number grew to 3244 as per RNI, of which 125 were dailies. As per the Indian Readership Survey Q2 for the year 2011 results the five most read Bengali newspapers were: Anand Bazar Patrika1 (Redership: 59. 2 lakh), Bartaman2 (29. 63 lakh), Sangbad Pratidin3 (9. 58 lakh), Ganashakti4 (7. 9 lakh) and Aajkal5 (6. 28 lakh) Calcutta was the second place in India to have a radio station after Bombay. In British India, broadcasting started in June 1923 with programmes by the Radio Club of Bombay, followed by other radio clubs. Then, by an agreement of 1926 the private Indian Broadcasting Company (IBC) was granted permission to operate two radio stations; the Bombay station was inaugurated on 23 July 1927, the Calcutta station followed on 26 August 1927. Calcutta had its first Television station (named Doordarshan) in 1975. In June, 1984, Calcutta Doordarshan entered the world of colour transmission. By mid 2011 there were over 15 stations of All India Radio in West Bengal. There were over 20 private radio stations in West Bengal including Radio Mirchi, Radio One, Red FM (Kolkata, Asansol and Siliguri), Big, Friends, Power, Aamar, Fever, Radio Meow, Radio Misty, High and Nine (Siligudi). There were three campus radio stations in SRFTI, Jadavpur University and Netaji Subhas Open Univeristy.